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Table 2 Characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of women with T1D and T2D from the chart review

From: Development of an integrated, district-wide approach to pre-pregnancy management for women with pre-existing diabetes in a multi-ethnic population

Variables T1D T2D P-value* T1D Melbourne
(n = 107) [29]
Background population in NSWd (2010) [28]
Age (years), mean (SD) 28.6 (5.6) 32.9 (5.2) < 0.001 29.3 (5.3) 30.8
n = 99 n = 53 n = 46    
BMIa (Kg/m2), mean (SD)c 25.8 (5.2) 35.4 (8.1) < 0.001 27.3 (5.0)
--
 
n = 93 n = 48 n = 45    
Gravida, n (SD)** 2.6 (2.2) 3.1 (2.2) 0.17  
n = 98 n = 53 n = 45    
Parity, n (SD)** 1.0 (1.2) 1.5 (1.4) 0.09  
n = 98 n = 53 n = 45    
Country of birth, n (%)**    0.07***   
 Australia 13 (35.1) 8 (19.1)   95 (89) 67.3%
 European descent 16 (43.2) 12 (28.6)  
 India/Bangladesh 1 (2.7) 5 (11.9)   3.5%
 Aboriginal 2 (5.4) 5 (11.9)   3.3%
 Others 5 (13.5) 12 (28.6)   25.9%
n = 79 n = 37 n = 42    
Family history of diabetes, n (%)** 20 (66.7) 30 (83.3) 0.30
n = 66 n = 30 n = 36    
Third-trimester HbA1c**    
 % 7.0 (1.8) 6.5 (1.4) 0.4   
 mmol/mol (SD) 53.0 (19.7) 47.5 (15.3)    
n = 76 n = 39 n = 37    
Folic acid, n (%)**    0.4***   
 Nil 13 (36.1) 9 (30.0)    
  < 5 mg 7 (19.4) 8 (26.7)    
 5 mg 8 (22.2) 10 (33.3)    
 Yes (dosage unknown) 8 (22.2) 3 (10.0)    
n = 66 n = 36 n = 30    
Treatment before pregnancy, n (%)**    < 0.001***   
 Diet alone 0 4 (9.4)    
 Tablets 0 11 (26.2)    
 Metformin 0 8 (19.0)    
 Gliclazide 0 3 (7.1)    
 Janumet (Metformin + Sitagliptin) 0 1 (2.4)    
 Insulin 51(96.2) 16 (38.1)    
 Insulin + Metformin 2 (3.8) 7 (16.7)    
 Nil 0 4 (9.4)    
n = 95 n = 53 n = 42    
Treatment during pregnancy, n (%)**    0.003***   
 Insulin 38 (92.7) 32 (78.1)    
 Metformin 1 (2.4) 2 (4.9)    
 Insulin & metformin 1 (2.4) 5 (12.2)    
 CSIIb 1 (2.4) 0    
 Insulin only at labour 0 1 (2.4)    
 Total 41 (100) 40 (97.6)    
n = 82 n = 41 n = 41    
Retinopathy screening, n (%)**    0.06***   
 Yes 18 (64.3) 9 (39.1)    
 No 10 (43.5) 14 (60.9)    
n = 55 n = 29 n = 26    
Thyroid disease, n (%)**    0.8***   
 Yes 6 (12.0) 5 (11.9)    
 No 42 (84) 36 (85.7)    
n = 89 n = 48 n = 41    
Delivery methodsb, n (%)**    0.005***   
 Vaginal 12 (24.5) 18 (41.9)    
 Elective CSc 17 (34.7) 13 (30.2)    
 Emergency CSc 11 (22.5) 9 (20.9)    
 Vacuum 3 (6.1) 4 (9.3)    
n = 87 n = 43 n = 44    
Pregnancy outcomesϕ, n (%)**
 Neonatal Hypoglycaemia 9 (36.0) 3 (12.5) 0.12
n = 49 n = 25 n = 24    
 Any congenital malformations 4 (9.1) 7 (15.6) 0.25 4 (4) 775 (0.8)
 Major 4 (9.1) 4 (8.9) 0.55
 Minor 0 4 (8.9)
n = 89 n = 44 n = 45    
 Hypertension 11 (24.4) 10 (22.2) 0.25 2 (2) 6357 (6.7)
n = 90 n = 45 n = 45    
 Pre-eclampsia 6 (12.2) 4 (10.3) 0.84 5 (5)
n = 88 n = 49 n = 39    
 Macrosomia (birthweight> 4000 g) 17 (34.7) 11 (24.4) 0.50ϒ 47 (44)
n = 94 n = 49 n = 45    
 Stillbirth 0 0 7 (7) 555 (0.6)
n = 88 n = 48 n = 40  
 Miscarriage 4 (8.0) 0   
n = 94 n = 50 n = 44    
  1. aBMI body mass index; bCSII continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; cCS Caesarean section; dNSW New South Wales
  2. *Age was included in all the statistical models;
  3. **denominators vary due to missing values;
  4. ***Overall P-value
  5. ϕ those with miscarriage were excluded from the analyses (n = 4);
  6. ϒ adjusted for age, BMI and history of macrosomia