|Studies and interventions||Region/ Country||Program content||Specialist delivered the interventions||Centres||Results|
|DVD [10, 13, 23, 24]||Northern Island/UK||The importance of planning pregnancy and the role of contraception.||A diabetes specialist- nurse and -midwife, a dietitian, a GP, a clinical health Psychologist, an obstetrician, a nutritionist||
1 : Two national health services|
2 :At their centre
3 : Five diabetes care within the five health and social care trust and general practices;
At their centre
1 : The DVD significantly improved self-efficacy and reduced perceived barriers. Knowledge of pregnancy planning and pregnancy-related risks increased (P < 0.001).|
2 : The development process and outcome evaluation are an important point of reference for future educational programs
3 : The viewed-DVD subgroup had lower first visit HbA1c (P < 0.001; increased planned pregnancy (P < 0.001); increased folic acid preconception (P = 0.001); and had improved HbA1c preconception (P < 0.001).
4 : the development of an e-learning continuing professional development resource within the website.
EASIPODa [5, 9, 19]: websites, workshops for HCP,|
Leaflets, structured audit with benchmarking, poster formal and informal patient education programs
|East- Anglia/ UK||Planning a pregnancy and contact details for local PPC coordinator||Diabetes physician, specialist nurse, midwife or obstetrician||Primary-care teams in community settings, women with T1D: by specialist teams in hospital settings. Joint clinics.||
5 : Women with PPC presented earlier (P = 0.001), were more likely to take 5 mg preconception folic acid (P = 0.0001) and had lower HbA1c (P = 0.0001). They had fewer adverse pregnancy outcomes P = 0.009). Lack of PPC was independently associated with adverse outcome (OR = 0.2; 95% CI 0.05–0.89).|
6 : Understanding PPC (90%); optimal glycaemic control (80%); risks of malformation (48%) and macrosomia (35%). 70% were not regularly using contraception (70%), stopped deliberately (45%), become less rigorous (28%) or experienced side effects (14%).
EASIPOD 2a : websites, workshops for HCP,|
Leaflets, structured audit with benchmarking, poster formal and informal patient education programs; GP software flags, online education program for HCPs
|East- Anglia/UK||Planning a pregnancy and contact details for local PPC coordinator||Diabetes physician, specialist nurse, midwife or obstetrician||Primary-care teams in community settings, women with T1D: by specialist teams in hospital settings. Joint clinics.||7 : In those withT1D: improved gestational age at booking (7.6 vs 8.4 weeks), and in women with T2D: high rate of first HbA1c of < 6.5% < 48 mmol (58.5% vs 44.4%) and higher rate of preconception 5 mg folic acid (41.8% vs 23.5%)|
[12, 20, 21]
|Pittsburgh/USA||Presents the effects of diabetes on reproductive health, puberty, sexuality, and pregnancy and the benefits of PPC and includes skill-building exercises for healthy decision making and communication with HCPs.||Specialised nurses and GPs||Major university-based diabetes clinics||
8 : Improved knowledge about family planning and reproductive health issues.|
9 : Increased in knowledge after the first visit (P < 0.001) and being sustained for 9 months (P < 0.05). preconception counselling barriers decreased over time (P < 0.001), and intention and initiation of preconception counselling and reproductive health discussions increased (P < 0.001).
10 : Stronger knowledge about PPC (P = 0.003) and seek PPC when planning a pregnancy\ (P = 0.02)
|Leaflets and posters in out-patient waiting room ||Ireland||Patient education, a full medication review, assessment & treatment of diabetes-complications and thyroid status, commencement of folic acid 5 mg/d and focus on intensive glucose monitoring||Specialist and general practitioners||Antenatal care by Primary care clinicians, local endocrinologist, diabetes nurse specialist and dietitian||Attendees were more likely to take preconception folic acid (P < 0.001) and less likely to smoke (P = .03). Attendees had lower glycated haemoglobin levels (P < .001; third trimester HbA1c (P = 0.001), and their offspring had lower rates of serious adverse outcomes (P = 0.007)|