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Table 1 Construction of study categories and study themes

From: Women suffer more from disrespectful and abusive care than from the labour pain itself: a qualitative study from Women’s perspective

Codes Categories Themes
- Repeated examination and examination without finding notification - Ignoring or undermining pain - Being told bad news - Inconsistent information - Shouting and insulting - Restraining for long - Being infantilized - Undermine woman’s feeling and experiences Losing control of the childbirth process
- Shifts bring difference - Disallowed to have companionship - Admitted against consensus - No assistance near by - Obliged to do self-care - Care against will - Privacy as time dependent - Humilating/degrading
- Declined to be examined - Care provider preference - Noticed institution difference - Short stay at health facility - Not willing to use the service again - Projecting the outcome - Fear of being hurt related to negligence and incompetence - Felt ok for stayed short in institution Reactions of care recipients to the care received during labour and delivery
- Unhygienic latrine - Staff work burden - Scarcity of running water - Staff shortage Resource scarcity as contributor to disrespectful and abusive care