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Table 1 Construction of study categories and study themes

From: Women suffer more from disrespectful and abusive care than from the labour pain itself: a qualitative study from Women’s perspective

Codes Categories Themes
- Repeated examination and examination without finding notification
- Ignoring or undermining pain
- Being told bad news
- Inconsistent information
- Shouting and insulting
- Restraining for long
- Being infantilized
- Undermine woman’s feeling and experiences
Losing control of the childbirth process
- Shifts bring difference
- Disallowed to have companionship
- Admitted against consensus
- No assistance near by
- Obliged to do self-care
- Care against will
- Privacy as time dependent
- Humilating/degrading
- Declined to be examined
- Care provider preference
- Noticed institution difference
- Short stay at health facility
- Not willing to use the service again
- Projecting the outcome
- Fear of being hurt related to negligence and incompetence
- Felt ok for stayed short in institution
Reactions of care recipients to the care received during labour and delivery
- Unhygienic latrine
- Staff work burden
- Scarcity of running water
- Staff shortage
Resource scarcity as contributor to disrespectful and abusive care