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Table 2 The role of mode of early feeding on measures of infant anthropometry at 6 months of age, in offspring born to obese women (n = 353)

From: Mode of infant feeding, eating behaviour and anthropometry in infants at 6-months of age born to obese women – a secondary analysis of the UPBEAT trial

  Breastfeeding Formula feeding (n = 161) Mixed feeding (N = 27)
Mean difference (95% CI) p-value Mean difference (95% CI) p-value
Triceps SFT z-scoresa Model 1 REF 0.07 (−0.24 to 0.39) 0.64 0.00 (− 0.36 to 0.37) 0.98
Model 2 0.20 (−0.39 to 0.79) 0.51 0.47 (− 0.19 to 1.13) 0.16
Subscapular SFT z-scoresa Model 1 REF −0.10 (− 0.41 to 0.21) 0.53 0.21 (− 0.14 to 0.57) 0.23
Model 2 0.03 (−0.55 to 0.62) 0.91 0.37 (−0.27 to 1.01) 0.25
Sum of skinfold thicknesses (mm) Model 1 REF −0.04 (− 0.92 to 0.84) 0.93 0.37 (−1.27 to 2.00) 0.66
Model 2 −0.33 (− 0.64 to 1.29) 0.51 1.44 (− 0.30 to 3.19) 0.10
Total body fat estimation (%) ^ Model 1 REF 0.04 (−1.15 to 1.07) 0.94 0.47 (−1.61 to 2.54) 0.66
Model 2 −0.44 (−0.78 to 1.65) 0.48 1.84 (−0.37 to 4.04) 0.10
Weight z-scoresa Model 1 REF 0.10 (−0.13 to 0.33) 0.39 0.05 (−0.38 to 0.47) 0.82
Model 2 0.26 (0.01 to 0.52) 0.04** 0.21 (−0.25 to 0.67) 0.37
BMI z-scoresa Model 1 REF 0.13 (−0.24 to 0.51) 0.49 0.24 (−0.46 to 0.94) 0.50
Model 2 0.23 (−0.21 to 0.67) 0.31 0.52 (− 0.28 to 1.32) 0.20
Length z-scoresa Model 1 REF −0.01 (− 0.39 to 0.38) 0.97 − 0.34 (−1.05 to 0.38) 0.35
Model 2 −0.26 (− 1.9 to 0.71) 0.26 − 0.30 (− 1.11 to 0.51) 0.46
Arm circumference z-scores a Model 1 REF 0.04 (− 0.18 to 0.27) 0.70 0.31 (−0.11 to 0.72) 0.15
Model 2 0.10 (−0.16 to 0.36) 0.46 0.52 (0.05 to 1.00) 0.03**
Rate of weight gain (kg/ month) Model 1 REF 0.03 (−0.00 to 0.05) 0.07 0.02 (−0.03 to 0.08) 0.39
Model 2 0.04 (0.00 to 0.07) 0.04** 0.03 (−0.03 to 0.09) 0.41
Rate of length gain (cm/month) Model 1 REF 0.07 (−0.10 to 0.25) 0.40 0.05 (−0.26 to 0.36) 0.76
Model 2 0.15 (−0.07 to 0.37) 0.18 0.01 (−0.35 to 0.37) 0.96
BMI z-scores ≥85th a Model 1 REF 0.99 (0.48 to 2.05) 0.97 1.61 (0.49 to 5.27) 0.43
Model 2 0.92 (0.35 to 2.40) 0.87 2.28 (0.54 to 9.65) 0.26
BMI z-scores ≥95th a Model 1 REF 1.58 (0.51 to 4.94) 0.43 2.40 (0.44 to 13.05) 0.31
Model 2 2.45 (0.59 to 10.2) 0.22 2.22 (0.21 to 23.64) 0.51
Catch up growth a Model 1 REF 1.80 (1.10 to 2.92) 0.02** 1.71 (0.71 to 4.15) 0.24
Model 2 2.48 (1.31 to 4.71) 0.01** 1.75 (0.59 to 5.25) 0.32
Catch down growtha Model 1 REF 0.68 (0.41 to 1.13) 0.14 0.55 (0.19 to 1.54) 0.25
Model 2 0.62 (0.32 to 1.21) 0.16 0.42 (0.10 to 1.75) 0.23
  1. aInfant z-scores calculated using the WHO growth standards [24]. Catch up and catch down growth defined using the WHO definitions of change in weight > 0.67 SDs; Infant sum of skinfold thicknesses calculated as the addition of subscapular and triceps skinfolds thicknesses, each measured in triplicates. ^Infant total body fat estimation calculated sex-specific, validated equations [25]. Model 1- Adjustment made for randomisation to the UPBEAT Intervention, infant sex and infant age at anthropometric measurement. Model 2- Adjustment made randomisation to the UPBEAT Intervention, infant sex and infant age at anthropometric measurement as well as maternal early pregnancy BMI, ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation, gestational diabetes and infant size at birth. ** p < 0.05. BMI, body mass index. Breastfeeding defined as ≥4 months of age where infants received nothing else except water; formula feeding, defined as the last episode of exclusive breastfeeding ≤2 months of age. Data was also recorded for the age of introduction and type of formula milk provided. Mixed feeding was defined as the last episode of breastfeeding > 2 months and ≤ 4 months of age. In those breastfed infants who also received sugar sweetened beverages, this was classed as mixed feeding