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Table 1 Maternal and neonatal demographic, clinical and biochemical characteristics stratified by mode of early feeding; data from the UPBEAT study (n = 353)

From: Mode of infant feeding, eating behaviour and anthropometry in infants at 6-months of age born to obese women – a secondary analysis of the UPBEAT trial

  Breast feeding n = 165 Formula feeding n = 161 Mixed feeding n = 27 p-value
Mean (SD)/ Median (IQR)/ N (%) Mean (SD)/ Median (IQR)/N (%) Mean (SD)/Median (IQR)/ N (%)
Maternal
 Age (years) 32.03 (4.72) 30.92 (5.45) 29.56 (5.55) 0.002
 Multiparous 80 (48.48) 68 (40.48) 15 (53.57) 0.220
 BMI (kg/m2) 35.87 (4.96) 37.30 (5.22) 35.06 (5.41) 0.01
 Ethnicity
  White 101 (61.21) 131 (81.37) 19 (70.37) < 0.001
  Black 40 (24.24) 15 (9.32) 7 (25.93) 0.001
  Asian 7 (4.24) 4 (2.48) 0 (0.00) 0.412
  Other 17 (10.30) 11 (6.83) 1 (3.70) 0.352
 Current smoker in early pregnancy 3 (1.82) 5 (3.11) 0 (0.00) 0.054
 Socioeconomic deprivation 108 (78.36) 94 (77.05) 17 (85.00) 0.726
 Gestational diabetesa 34 (20.61) 62 (38.51) 7 (25.93) 0.002
 Gestational weight gain (kg)b 7.19 (4.39) 7.80 (4.75) 8.29 (4.37) 0.339
Neonate
 Gestation at delivery (weeks) 40.29 (39.00 to 41.00) 39.86 (38.43 to 41.71) 39.86 (38.86 to 41.00) 0.077
 Birthweight (grams) 3600 (3210 to 3845) 3428 (3155 to 3760) 3360 (3140 to 3660) 0.159
 Neonatal sum of skinfold thicknesses (mm)^ 10.77 (2.81) 10.92 (2.91) 9.96 (1.78) 0.429
 Neonatal abdominal circumference (cm) 32.17 (2.31) 32.30 (2.03) 32.02 (2.31) 0.867
 Neonatal arm circumference (cm) 11.46 (0.99) 11.62 (1.00) 11.14 (0.83) 0.158
(log2) Cord blood leptin (ng/ml) 2.85 (0.70) 2.72 (0.72) 2.78 (0.71) 0.49
  1. aGestational diabetes diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Group’s criteria at 24–28 weeks’ gestation. bGestational weight gain defined as total weight gain from calculated pre-pregnancy weight gain to 34–36 weeks’ gestation. ^Neonatal sum of skinfolds defined as sum of triceps skinfold thicknesses and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, each measured in triplicates. BMI, body mass index; breastfeeding defined as ≥4 months of age where infants received nothing else except water; formula feeding, defined as the last episode of exclusive breastfeeding ≤2 months of age. Data was also recorded for the age of introduction and type of formula milk provided. Mixed feeding was defined as the last episode of breastfeeding > 2 months and ≤ 4 months of age. In those breastfed infants who also received sugar sweetened beverages, this was classed as mixed feeding