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Table 3 Effectiveness of postpartum parenting education on the quality of mother-infant interaction and sense changes of parenting competence

From: Mother–infant interaction quality and sense of parenting competence at six months postpartum for first-time mothers in Taiwan: a multiple time series design

  NCATS
  Sensitivity to Cues Response to Distress Social-Emotional Growth Fostering
  B S.E. Wald χ2 p value B S.E. Wald χ2 p value B S.E. Wald χ2 p value
Intercept 8.68 0.29 924.22** < 0.001 8.78 0.48 328.50** < 0.001 7.80 0.29 718.56** < 0.001
EGa −0.31 0.35 0.77 0.381 0.49 0.54 0.82 0.366 0.26 0.35 0.57 0.452
Time
 1st m vs. 1st wkb −0.10 0.29 0.12 0.728 1.25 0.48 6.69* 0.010 0.18 0.30 0.38 0.539
 2nd m vs. 1st wkb −0.29 0.30 0.94 0.334 1.42 0.49 8.32** 0.004 0.66 0.31 4.60* 0.032
 3rd m vs. 1st wkb 0.10 0.31 0.10 0.751 1.88 0.46 16.92** < 0.001 1.56 0.31 25.09** < 0.001
 6th m vs. 1st wkb 0.05 0.28 0.03 0.866 1.98 0.46 18.83** < 0.001 0.93 0.34 7.72** 0.005
Interaction
 EG × [1st m vs. 1st wk]c 1.93 0.36 28.74** < 0.001 0.08 0.57 0.02 0.890 1.24 0.35 12.60** < 0.001
 EG × [2nd m vs. 1st wk]c 1.63 0.39 17.53** < 0.001 −0.06 0.57 0.01 0.913 1.42 0.37 14.60** < 0.001
 EG × [3rd m vs. 1st wk]c 1.63 0.41 15.75** < 0.001 −0.42 0.55 0.60 0.438 0.86 0.37 5.34* 0.021
 EG × [6th m vs. 1st wk]c 1.53 0.37 16.85** < 0.001 −0.50 0.55 0.83 0.364 0.95 0.41 5.48* 0.019
Propensity score 0.21 0.22 0.89 0.347 0.35 0.31 1.28 0.258 0.18 0.28 0.42 0.518
  NCATS
  Cognitive Growth Fostering Clarity of Cues Responsiveness to Caregiver
  B S.E. Wald χ2 p value B S.E. Wald χ2 p value B S.E. Wald χ2 p value
Intercept 6.67 0.45 222.11** < 0.001 5.53 0.36 242.18** < 0.001 4.77 0.36 179.79** < 0.001
EGa −0.23 0.67 0.15 0.736 0.03 0.38 0.01 0.941 −0.30 0.52 0.33 0.566
Time
 1st m vs. 1st wkb −0.34 0.45 0.55 0.459 0.29 0.39 0.56 0.453 0.03 0.45 0.00 0.957
 2nd m vs. 1st wkb 0.10 0.45 0.05 0.830 1.47 0.38 14.89** < 0.001 0.95 0.45 4.53* 0.033
 3rd m vs. 1st wkb 1.79 0.52 11.62** 0.001 1.97 0.43 21.15** < 0.001 2.20 0.45 24.24** < 0.001
 6th m vs. 1st wkb 1.69 0.54 9.88** 0.002 2.62 0.40 42.71** < 0.001 0.45 0.54 0.69 0.407
Interaction
 EG × [1st m vs. 1st wk]c 0.54 0.70 41.62** < 0.001 1.51 0.45 11.38** 0.001 1.67 0.62 7.32** 0.007
 EG × [2nd m vs. 1st wk]c 4.89 0.69 49.60** < 0.001 1.45 0.46 9.77** 0.002 2.42 0.61 15.70** < 0.001
 EG × [3rd m vs. 1st wk]c 4.37 0.75 34.30** < 0.001 1.47 0.47 9.95** 0.002 1.88 0.63 9.05** 0.003
 EG × [6th m vs. 1st wk]c 3.83 0.72 27.96** < 0.001 1.21 0.44 7.37** 0.007 3.44 0.74 21.75** < 0.001
Propensity score −0.17 0.54 0.10 0.754 −0.13 0.24 0.29 0.590 3.35 0.43 0.67 0.413
  NCATS
  Caregiver scores Child scores Total scores
  B S.E. Wald χ2 p value B S.E. Wald χ2 p value B S.E. Wald χ2 p value
Intercept 32.01 0.97 1095.92** < 0.001 10.30 0.56 343.17** < 0.001 42.30 1.16 1328.29** < 0.001
EGa 0.19 1.30 0.02 0.887 −0.27 0.71 0.15 0.702 −0.11 1.64 0.01 0.946
Time
 1st m vs. 1st wkb 0.92 0.92 1.00 0.318 0.31 0.69 0.20 0.652 1.25 1.29 0.93 0.336
 2nd m vs. 1st wkb 1.81 0.97 3.49 0.062 2.42 0.64 14.45** < 0.001 4.26 1.31 10.60** 0.001
 3rd m vs. 1st wkb 5.24 1.03 26.03** < 0.001 4.16 0.67 38.32** < 0.001 9.42 1.41 44.64** < 0.001
 6th m vs. 1st wkb 4.57 1.00 21.08** < 0.001 3.06 0.72 18.19** < 0.001 7.65 1.32 33.57** < 0.001
Interaction
 EG × [1st m vs. 1st wk]c 7.82 1.29 36.77** < 0.001 3.18 0.90 12.43** < 0.001 11.02 1.77 38.75** < 0.001
 EG × [2nd m vs. 1st wk]c 7.91 1.34 35.07** < 0.001 3.87 0.87 19.98** < 0.001 11.79 1.79 43.27** < 0.001
 EG × [3rd m vs. 1st wk]c 6.47 1.44 20.33** < 0.001 3.35 0.87 14.99** < 0.001 9.85 1.87 27.73** < 0.001
 EG × [6th m vs. 1st wk]c 5.85 1.39 17.68** < 0.001 4.65 0.95 23.68** < 0.001 10.52 1.82 33.57** < 0.001
Propensity score 0.57 0.90 0.40 0.528 −0.49 0.55 0.78 0.376 0.84 1.14 0.01 0.941
  NCATS PSOC
  Contingency scores
  B S.E. Wald χ2 p value B S.E. Wald χ2 p value     
Intercept 13.67 0.75 336.23** < 0.001 66.78 2.30 843.52** < 0.001     
EGa −0.36 1.15 0.10 0.751 −2.59 2.94 0.78 0.379     
Time
 1st m vs. 1st wkb 0.91 0.92 0.98 0.323 −2.37 1.27 3.47 0.062     
 2nd m vs. 1st wkb 2.40 0.90 7.18** 0.007 0.15 1.13 0.02 0.896     
 3rd m vs. 1st wkb 6.31 0.87 52.00** < 0.001 2.50 1.24 4.09* 0.043     
 6th m vs. 1st wkb 3.48 0.78 20.15** < 0.001 4.80 1.41 11.56** 0.001     
Interaction
 EG × [1st m vs. 1st wk]c 6.53 1.26 26.85** < 0.001 0.47 1.82 0.07 0.796     
 EG × [2nd m vs. 1st wk]c 7.14 1.26 32.05** < 0.001 1.78 1.74 1.05 0.306     
 EG × [3rd m vs. 1st wk]c 5.50 1.31 17.62** < 0.001 2.62 1.83 2.06 0.151     
 EG × [6th m vs. 1st wk]c 6.64 1.29 26.51** < 0.001 2.91 2.07 1.97 0.161     
Propensity score −0.47 0.82 0.32 0.572 1.92 4.20 0.21 0.647     
  1. *: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01; df = 1; a Reference category: CG; b Reference category: 1st week (Baseline); c Reference category: CG × 1st week (Baseline)
  2. NCATS nursing child assessment teaching scale, PSOC parenting sense of competence, EG experimental group, 1st wk the 1st week,1st m the 1st month; 2nd m the 2nd month, 3rd m the 3rd month, 6th m the 6th month
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