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Table 2 The thematic structure of the initial IPA and final IPA/TA hybrid analysis indicating the super-ordinate and minor themes in addition to the number of participants contributing to each super-ordinate theme

From: Learning from the experience of maternity healthcare workers in Malawi: a qualitative study leading to ten low-cost recommendations to improve working lives and quality of care

Initial IPA Template Final IPA/TA Template (number of participants contributing to evidence for theme)
Support to do the job
 Calling for help from clinicians
 Conflict between cadres
 Coping Strategies
 Feedback from colleagues
 Teamwork
 Inadequate facilities
 Leadership
 Management
 Night time worst
 Common goals
 Communication
 No control
 Nurses with the patients
 Resources
 Senior support
 Supervision
 Referral
 Food Important

Being a healthcare worker is hectic but good outcomes are enjoyable
 Clear responsibilities
 Enjoy job
 Pressure of work high
 Outside of work
 Quiet times
 Motivation for doing job
 Feedback from patients

Treating all patients well; Physically, socially and spiritually.
 Quality Improvement
 Want to do good
 Whole person care
 Respectful Care
 Caring about patients
 Not properly doing duties

Continuing development to increase independence and recognition
 Experienced worker
 Career history
 Hierarchical system
 Learning from experience
 Learning from experienced colleagues
 Learning from other cadres
 Personal ambition and achievement
 On the job training
 Role Models
 School hoping to go
 Motivation for becoming hcw
 Picked for school

Incentives motivate, meet needs and encourage implementation
 Absent from work Training
 Incentives embedded in the system
 Pay
Wanting a culture of respect, support and praise: Systemic issues (31)
 Absent from work Training Calling for help from clinicians Feedback from colleagues
 Communication Conflict between cadres Clear responsibilities
 Good working environment Hierarchical system Inadequate facilities
 Incentives Embedded Leadership Management
 Food Important Night time worst No control
 Not properly doing duties Nurses with the patients Patients agency
 Pay Poor clinical assessment School hoping to go
 Pressure of work high Quiet times Referral
 Resources Selection for training Senior support
 Supervision
Passionately, determinedly fulfilling a dream: Staff Motivations (31)
 Career history Caring about patients Common goals
 Conflict between cadres Enjoying Experienced worker
 Feedback from colleagues Feedback from patients Good working environment
 Teamwork Hierarchical system Inadequate facilities
 Personal ambition and achievement Food Important Motivation for becoming HCW
 Leadership Responsibility Outside of work
 Patients agency Pay Role models
 Senior support Supervision Training
 Want to do good job   
Treating patients well; Physically, socially and spiritually (31)
 Calling for help from clinicians Caring about patients Conflict between cadres
 Coping Strategies Night time worst Not properly doing duties
 Nurses with the patients Poor clinical assessment Pressure of work high
 Quality Improvement Referral Respectful Care
 Teamwork Want to do good job Whole person care
Continuing development to increase independence, recognition and prospects (31)
 Absent from work Training Career History Conflict between cadres
 Hierarchical system Learning from experience Food Important
 Learning from other cadres Personal ambition and achievement Learning from experienced colleagues
 On the job training Pay Picked for school
 School hoping to go Selection for training Training
Incentives motivate, meet needs and encourage implementation (30)
 Incentives embedded in the system Training motivating incentives Selection for training
 Pay Food Important  
Commitment, communication and taking responsibility: Professionalism (31)
 Absent from work Personal Caring about patients Communication
 Conflict between cadres Coping Strategies Learning from experience
 Learning from other cadres Learning from experienced colleagues Responsibility
 Not properly doing duties Other cultures Teamwork
 Outside of work Patients agency Poor clinical assessment
 Quality Improvement Respectful Care Want to do good job
 Night time worst   
Superdiversity of healthcare staff (31)
 Career history Experienced worker Family background
 Learning from other cadres Motivation for becoming HCW Other cultures
 Patients agency Outside of work