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Table 4 Antibiotic use in pregnancy and the risks of childhood asthma stratified by family history of allergic disorders

From: The effect of breastfeeding on the risk of asthma in high-risk children: a case-control study in Shanghai, China

Exposure categories Case N (%) Control N (%) OR (95% CI) aORa (95% CI)
Among children with family history of allergic disordersb (n = 507)
 No antibiotic use in pregnancy 303 (90.7) 168 (97.1) ref ref
 Using antibiotics in pregnancy 31 (9.3) 5 (2.9) 3.4 (1.3–9.0) 3.1 (1.2–8.4)
Among children without family history of allergic disordersb (n = 968)
 No antibiotic use in pregnancy 275 (95.2) 655 (96.5) ref ref
 Using antibiotics in pregnancy 14 (4.8) 24 (3.5) 1.4 (0.7–2.7) 1.3 (0.6–2.6)
Among children with Family history of allergic disorders
 Exclusively breastfed within the first 6 months of life (n = 252)
  No antibiotic use in pregnancy 157 (94.6) 82 (95.4) ref ref
  Using antibiotics in pregnancy 9 (5.4) 4 (4.6) 1.2 (0.4–3.9) 0.8 (0.2–3.0)
 Non - Exclusively breastfed within the first 6 months of life (n = 255)
  No antibiotic use in pregnancy 146 (86.9) 86 (98.9) ref ref
  Using antibiotics in pregnancy 22 (13.1) 1 (1.1) 13.0 (1.7–97.8) 14.8 (1.9–116.8)
  1. aadjusted for maternal age at delivery (years), maternal education level (≤9, 10–12, 13–16, ≥17, unknown), child age (years), child gender (female, male), gestational age at birth (weeks), delivery modes (cesarean delivery, virginal delivery)
  2. badjusted for exclusive breastfeeding within the first 6 months of life (no, yes) additionally
  3. OR: odds ratios
  4. aOR: adjusted odds ratios