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Table 3 Antibiotic use in pregnancy and the risks of childhood asthma stratified by gender

From: The effect of breastfeeding on the risk of asthma in high-risk children: a case-control study in Shanghai, China

Exposure categories Case N (%) Control N (%) OR (95% CI) aORa (95% CI)
Among boysb (n = 832)
 No antibiotic use in pregnancy 349 (91.4) 436 (96.9) ref ref
 Using antibiotics in pregnancy 33 (8.6) 14 (3.1) 2.9 (1.6–5.6) 2.2 (1.1–4.4)
Among girlsb (n = 666)
 No antibiotic use in pregnancy 240 (95.2) 398 (96.1) ref ref
 Using antibiotics in pregnancy 12 (4.8) 16 (3.9) 1.2 (0.6–2.7) 1.3 (0.5–3.0)
Among boys
 Exclusively breastfed within the first 6 months of life (n = 437)
  No antibiotic use in pregnancy 185 (94.9) 234 (96.7) ref ref
  Using antibiotics in pregnancy 10 (5.1) 8 (3.3) 1.6 (0.6–4.1) 1.0 (0.4–3.1)
 Non - Exclusively breastfed within the first 6 months of life (n = 395)
  No antibiotic use in pregnancy 164 (87.7) 202 (97.1) ref ref
  Using antibiotics in pregnancy 23 (12.3) 6 (2.9) 4.7 (1.9–11.9) 4.1 (1.5–10.9)
  1. aadjusted for maternal age at delivery (years), maternal education level (≤9, 10–12, 13–16, ≥17, unknown), child age (years), gestational age at birth (weeks), delivery modes (cesarean delivery, virginal delivery), family history of allergic disorders (no, yes, unknown)
  2. badjusted for exclusive breastfeeding within the first 6 months of life (no, yes) additionally
  3. OR: odds ratios
  4. aOR: adjusted odds ratios