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Table 1 Maternal sociodemographic characteristics (N = 1300)

From: Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus: findings from a universal screening feasibility program in Lima, Peru

Characteristics All participants (N = 1300) No GDM (N = 1095) GDM (N = 205) P-value
n % n % n %
Maternal age (years)a 28.86 ± 6.14 28.68 ± 6.06 29.83 ± 6.49 0.013
Maternal age (years)
 < 19 49 3.8 43 3.9 6 2.9 0.081
 20–29 669 51.5 578 52.8 91 44.4
 30–34 313 24.1 258 23.6 55 26.8
 ≥35 269 20.7 216 19.7 53 25.9
Ethnicity
 Mestizo 1275 98.1 1074 98.1 201 98.0 0.974
 Other 25 1.9 21 1.9 4 2.0
Marital status
 Married or living with partner 1123 86.5 946 86.5 177 86.3 0.960
 Single or living alone/divorced 176 13.5 148 13.5 28 13.7
Educational Status (years) 12.17 ± 2.38 12.16 ± 2.39 12.25 ± 2.33 0.604
Maternal education (years)
 ≤6 39 3.0 34 3.1 5 2.4 0.743
 7–12 698 53.7 591 54.0 107 52.2
 > 12 563 43.3 470 42.9 93 45.4
Paternal education (years)
 ≤6 30 2.3 27 2.5 3 1.5 0.318
 7–12 727 56.4 620 57.0 107 53.0
 > 12 532 41.3 440 40.5 92 45.5
Employment
 No 881 67.8 733 66.9 148 72.2 0.140
 Yes 419 32.2 362 33.1 57 27.8
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)
 < 25 (normal weight) 684 53.6 580 53.8 104 52.3 0.137
 25–29.9 (overweight) 446 34.9 382 35.4 64 32.2
 ≥30 (obese) 147 11.5 116 10.8 31 15.6
Mid-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)
 < 25 (normal weight) 324 25.0 284 26.1 40 19.5 0.016
 25–29.9 (overweight) 653 50.5 553 50.8 100 48.8
 ≥30 (obese) 317 24.5 252 23.1 65 31.7
Family history of diabetes
 No/Don’t Know 834 64.2 720 65.8 114 114 0.005
 Yes 466 35.8 375 34.2 91 44.4
Depression 138 10.6 106 9.7 32 15.6 0.012
Perceived health during pregnancy
 Excellent 18 1.4 14 1.3 4 2.0 0.696
 Very Good 76 5.8 67 6.1 9 4.4
 Good 586 45.1 488 44.6 98 47.8
 Fair 568 43.7 483 44.1 85 41.5
 Poor 52 4.0 43 3.9 9 4.4
Difficulty paying for basics
 Very hard/hard 199 15.3 171 15.6 28 13.7 0.759
 Somewhat hard 441 34.0 369 33.8 72 35.1
 Not very hard 658 50.7 553 50.6 105 51.2
Food insecurity
 No 446 34.3 379 34.6 67 32.7 0.593
 Yes 854 65.7 716 65.4 138 67.3
Difficulties to access medical care
 Very hard/hard 248 19.1 207 18.9 41 20.0 0.728
 Somewhat hard 897 69.1 760 69.5 137 66.8
 Not very hard 154 11.9 127 11.6 27 13.2
  1. amean ± standard deviation
  2. Italicized p-values are statistically significant at α = 0.05