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Table 1 Demographics, obstetric history and post-delivery care of study participants, comparing febrile and hypothermic participants to normothermic participants

From: Incidence of postpartum infection, outcomes and associated risk factors at Mbarara regional referral hospital in Uganda

Characteristic (n = 1913) Normothermic number (%)
(n = 1708)
Febrile or hypothermic number (%)
(n = 205)
P-value*
Sociodemographics
Age category   < 0.001
 ≤19 187 (12) 47 (24)  
 20–34 1217 (79) 142 (73)  
 > 34 135 (9) 6 (3)  
Residence in Mbarara municipality 664 (45) 58 (32) 0.001
Married 1452 (93) 177 (91) 0.19
No formal employment 925 (59) 145 (74) < 0.001
Median household monthly income in UGx (USD) 150,000 (42) 100,000 (28) 0.10
HIV-infected 190 (12) 24 (12) 0.86
Referred from another health facility 183 (12) 48 (24) < 0.001
Pregnancy & Obstetric History
Admitted in labor 1503 (96) 183 (93) 0.046
Attended ≥4ANC visits 1101 (71) 138 (71) 0.99
Malaria prophylaxis during pregnancy (or taking TMP/SMX) 1434 (92) 175 (90) 0.26
Medical condition reported during pregnancy
 Syphilis or sexually transmitted infection 47 (3) 9 (5) 0.23
 Urinary tract infection 47 (3) 3 (2) 0.24
 Malaria 152 (10) 18 (9) 0.81
 Diabetes, cardiac or renal condition 4 (0.3) 0 (0) 0.48
Total number of pregnancies   < 0.001
 1 555 (36) 107 (55)  
 2–4 799 (51) 71 (36)  
 ≥5 203 (13) 17 (9)  
Gestational age at delivery   0.45
 Preterm (< 37 weeks) 140 (10) 22 (13)  
 Term (37–42 weeks) 1199 (82) 131 (78)  
 Post-term (> 42 weeks) 121 (8) 16 (9)  
Number of vaginal exams (self-reported)   0.32
 0–4 1269 (89) 165 (91)  
 ≥5 162 (11) 16 (9)  
Delivery mode   < 0.001
 Vaginal (spontaneous, breech or assisted) 814 (53) 37 (19)  
 Cesarean 720 (47) 154 (81)  
Estimated duration of labor (mean hours, SD) 16.2 (SD 15) 19.7 (SD 17) 0.01
Singleton pregnancy 1505 (97) 188 (96) 0.37
Post-Delivery Care
Peri-Cesarean antibiotic prophylaxis received 666 (99) 135 (99) 0.85
Urinary catheter placed 755 (48) 159 (82) < 0.001
Catheter days (mean days, SD n = 914) 1.9 (1.0) 2.2 (1.3) < 0.001
Duration of hospitalization (n = 1769; days, mean SD) 2.3 (2.1) 4.7 (5.9) < 0.001
  1. HIV human immunodeficiency virus, UGx Uganda Shillings, USD United States Dollar, TMP/SMX trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ANC antenatal clinic, SD standard deviation
  2. *Tests of association between cohort characteristics and temperature classification were performed using Chi squared, Fisher’s exact, and Student’s t-tests, where appropriate