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Table 3 Adverse pregnancy outcomes and the anthropometric parameters in babies in the control and the study group

From: Obstetric outcomes and effects on babies born to women treated for epilepsy during pregnancy in a resource limited setting: a comparative cohort study

  AED group
N = 75 (%)
Controls
N = 53 (%)
P
Average age of the baby at examination (months) (SD)
 The total study population (N = 75) 5.8 (+/− 6.73)   
 Cases matched with controls (N = 53) 3.52 (2.79) 3.11 (+/−2.28) 0.30
Average POAa at delivery (weeks) (SD) 38.22 (+/−3.50) 38.52 (+/− 2.06)  
Term deliveries 70 (92.1) 48 (90.5) 0.66
Preterm deliveries 5 (6.57) 2 (3.77) 0.49
Sex of the baby
 Male 43 (57.33) 29 (54.71) 0.76
 Female 32 (42.66) 24 (45.28) 0.76
Mode of delivery
 NVDb 55 (73.33) 34 (64.15) 0.26
 Forceps delivery 1 (1.33) 1 (1.88) 0.80
 Vacuum delivery 1 (1.33) 3 (5.66) 0.16
 Elective LSCSc 6 (8) 9 (16.19) 0.06
 Emergency LSCSc 10 (13.33) 7 (13.20) 0.23
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) 7 (9.33) 1 (1.88) 0.87
Low birth weight 16 (21.33) 4 (−7.54) 0.03
Examination findings in babies N = 53 N = 53  
Congenital abnormalities (n,%) 5 (9.43) 2 (3.77) 0.24
 Atrio-ventricular septal defect 2 (3.77) 0
 Renal hypoplasia 1 (1.88) 0
 Cryptorchidism 1 (1.88) 0
 Microcephaly 1 (1.88) 2 (3.77) 0.35
 Anencephaly 0 0
 Neural tube defects 0 0
 Cleft palate 0 0
Facial measurements (cm)
 Inner-canthal distance 3.02 2.4 0.32
 Outer-canthal distance 9.3 8.37 0.83
 Hair line to chin distance 12.8 12.15 0.24
Facial dysmorphism
 Mid-facial hypoplasia 1 (1.66%) 2 (3.77%) 0.16
 Smooth philtrum
(Astley–Clarren scale 4 &5)
16 (28.07%) 1 (1.88%) 0.0004
 Hypertelorism 1 (1.88%) 1 (1.88%) 0.74
 Telecanthus 1 (1.88%) 0
 Epicanthic folds 1 (1.88%) 0
 Simian crease 0 (1.88%) 0
Anthropometry
 At birth Weight (Kg) 2.74 2.91 0.263
Length (cm) 51.52 51.53 0.363
OFCd (cm) 32.13 32.85 0.307
 At the postpartum visit Weight (Kg) 4.12 4.97 0.009
Length (cm) 55.53 58.09 0.016
OFCd (cm) 37.37 39.49 0.002
  1. aPeriod of amenorrhea
  2. bNormal vaginal delivery
  3. clower segment cesarean section
  4. dOccipito-frontal circumference