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Table 2 Intrapartum factors

From: Identifying the risk: a prospective cohort study examining postpartum haemorrhage in a regional Australian health service

Variable N n % Median (IQR)
Duration of labour     
Length of first stage 520    255 (269)
Length of second stage 522    21 (38)
Length of third stage 522    11 (9)
Perineal Injury 522    
Perineal graze   28 5.4  
1st degree perineal injury   69 13.2  
2nd degree perineal injury   195 37.4  
3rd degree perineal injury   21 4  
4th degree perineal injury   1 0.2  
Labial tear/s   60 11.5  
Episiotomy   60 11.5  
Onset of labour induceda 522 149 28.5  
Induction methods used - PGE   92 17.6  
Induction methods used - Cooks catheter   8 1.5  
Induction methods used - ARM   97 18.6  
Induction methods used - Syntocinon   54 10.3  
Labour augmented by an ARM   168 32.2  
Labour augmented with syntocinon   69 13.2  
Pain Relief 522    
Pharmacological pain relief - epidural   125 23.9  
Pharmacological pain relief - spinal   1 0.2  
Pharmacological pain relief - nitrous   319 61.1  
Pharmacological pain relief - morphine   57 10.9  
Pharmacological pain relief - pethidine   4 0.8  
Pharmacological pain relief - caudal   1 0.2  
Complications 522    
Complications arising during labour   185 35.4  
Complications during labour - Failure to progress   6 1.1  
Complications during labour - Precipitate labour   13 2.5  
Complications during labour - Shoulder dystocia   5 1  
Complications during labour - Failed Vacuum   5 1  
Complications during labour - Maternal temperature   4 0.8  
Complications during labour - Meconium Liquor   69 13.2  
Complications during labour - Fetal distress   42 8  
Complications during labour - Gestational hypertension   6 1.1  
Complications during labour - Pre-eclampsia   5 1  
Complications during labour - Abruption   4 0.8  
Complications during labour - Intrapartum Haemorrhage   3 0.6  
Complications during labour - Cord entanglement   3 0.6  
Complications during labour - Prolonged second stage   46 8.8  
Complications during labour - HELLP   0 0  
Complications during labour - Eclampsia   0 0  
Complications during labour - Cord prolapse   0 0  
Complications during labour - Failure forceps   0 0  
Maternal position at birth 515    
Upright (all fours, standing, squatting, kneeling, birth stool, lateral)   183 35.5  
Non-upright (semi-recumbent, supine, lithotomy)   278 54  
Other or unknown   54 10.5  
Placental position 520    
Anterior   265 51  
Posterior   214 41.2  
Fundal   20 3.8  
Low-lying   3 0.6  
Unknown   18 3.5  
Presentation at birth 522    
Vertex   521 99.8  
Breech   1 0.2  
Who conducted the birth? 522    
Midwife (registered midwife, student midwife, or midwife supervised)   407 78  
Doctor (JHO, obstetrician, JHO)   115 22  
Baby separated from mother within first hour after birth 522 75 14.4  
Congenital abnormality at birth 522 3 0.6  
Born alive or still 522 519 99.4  
  1. atotal of induction methods is greater than “yes” for onset of labour induced as more than one method may have been used