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Table 4 Prevalence of pregnancy risk factors for infant mortality, by maternal corrections exposure and Indigenous status

From: Determinants of infant mortality for children of women prisoners: a longitudinal linked data study

  Indigenous infants Non-Indigenous infants
Prison (before preg.) Prison (during preg.) Prison (after birth) Community correct. No correct. Prison (before preg.) Prison (during preg.) Prison (after birth) Community correct No correct
n = 2857 n = 802 n = 3658 n = 5828 n = 12,817 n = 667 n = 249 n = 2588 n = 653 n = 12,555
Very low (0–5%) SESa
% 22.9 22.7 29.1 29.8 25.7 13.3 13.4 12.8 12.3 3.8
RR 0.89 0.88 1.13 1.16 ref. 3.48 3.49 3.35 3.20 ref.
p-value 0.002 0.057 <.001 <.001   <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001  
Multiple gestation
% 1.9 3.0 2.5 2.5 2.1 4.0 1.6 2.4 2.6 2.5
RR 0.86 1.39 1.18 1.17 ref. 1.60 0.63 0.93 1.03 ref.
p-value 0.328 0.113 0.152 0.126   0.017 0.362 0.602 0.911  
Birth spacing < 18mths
% 17.9 11.2 14.1 12.8 9.6 12.7 8.0 9.8 10.4 5.6
RR 1.87 1.17 1.47 1.34 ref. 2.27 1.43 1.75 1.86 ref.
p-value <.001 0.127 <.001 <.001   <.001 0.099 <.001 <.001  
Maternal age < 20 yrs.
% 15.3 28.6 41.7 33.1 28.3 9.3 10 25.9 26 6.6
RR 0.54 1.01 1.47 1.17 ref. 1.40 1.51 3.91 3.92 ref.
p-value <.001 0.895 <.001 <.001   0.007 0.032 <.001 <.001  
Placental disordersb
% 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.1 0.8 1.1 1.1 0.4
RR 1.17 1.92 1.54 1.72 ref. 0.34 1.83 2.56 2.45 ref.
p-value 0.620 0.130 0.090 0.011   0.288 0.398 <.001 0.025  
PROMc
% 6.8 5.5 5.1 5.2 4.0 5.5 3.2 3.7 3.2 2.3
RR 1.71 1.39 1.28 1.32 ref. 2.41 1.4 1.59 1.40 ref.
p-value <.001 0.032 0.003 <.001   <.001 0.344 <.001 0.133  
Substance used
% 3.2 7.4 2.2 1.6 0.7 12.3 10.0 4.7 3.2 0.4
RR 4.64 10.59 3.15 2.27 ref. 30.87 25.21 11.74 8.08 ref.
p-value <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001   <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001  
External injurye
% 10.9 14.5 9.4 6.5 2.9 6.9 6.4 3.4 2.1 0.9
RR 3.78 5.02 3.26 2.25 ref. 7.46 6.95 3.72 2.32 ref.
p-value <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001   <.001 <.001 <.001 0.003  
Mental health contactf
% 6.7 8.4 3.6 3.1 1.6 13.5 10.8 5.0 5.1 1.2
RR 4.20 5.22 2.27 1.96 ref. 11.15 8.96 4.15 4.17 ref.
p-value <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001   <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001  
Sibling in contact CPg
% 11.6 14.3 5.2 2.6 0.7 12.9 11.2 4.4 1.5 0.05
RR 15.68 19.35 6.97 3.50 ref. 269.80 235.30 91.36 32.04 ref.
p-value <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001   <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001  
  1. a46 Indigenous and 38 non-Indigenous infants missing socioeconomic status
  2. bExcludes placenta previa
  3. cPremature rupture of membranes
  4. dSubstance use (including alcohol) or poisoning related service contact (Mental Health or Hospital)
  5. eHospitalisation for external causes of injury in pregnancy (excludes poisoning)
  6. fMental health related service contact in pregnancy (excludes substance use) (Mental Health or Hospital)
  7. gOlder sibling(s) in contact with child protection system in infant’s pregnancy