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Table 3 The associations of hemoglobin levels with the risks of gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, and preterm birth

From: Hemoglobin levels during the first trimester of pregnancy are associated with the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia and preterm birth in Chinese women: a retrospective study

  Total, n = 21,577 Pre-pregnancy BMI < 24 kg/m2, n = 17,794 Pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2, n = 3783
  No. (%) Crude OR Adjusted OR χ2 P-trend No. (%) Crude OR Adjusted OR χ2 P-trend No. (%) Crude OR Adjusted OR χ2 P-trend
GDM Hemoglobin level (g/L)
< 110 92 (15.8) 0.884 (0.703,1.111) 0.913 (0.721, 1.155) 102.066 < 0.001 72 (13.6) 0.763 (0.591, 0.986) 0.880 (0.678, 1.144) 54.94 < 0.001 20 (35.7) 1.246 (0.712, 2.180) 1.178 (0.668, 2.078) 6.52 0.01
110–129 1641 (17.5) 1 1    1261 (15.4) 1     380 (30.8) 1 1   
130–149 2493 (22.1) 1.343 (1.253, 1.440) 1.272 (1.182, 1.369)    1699 (19.1) 1.296 (1.196, 1.404) 1.274 (1.171, 1.386)    794 (33.2) 1.114(0.961, 1.292) 1.162(0.998, 1.354)   
≥150 111 (33.8) 2.418 (1.912, 3.058) 2.063 (1.609, 2.645)    59 (26.2) 1.946 (1.437, 2.635) 1.844(1.344, 2.529)    52 (50.5) 2.286(1.525, 3.427) 2.333(1.537, 3.541)   
Per-unit increment   1.019 (1.016, 1.023) 1.015 (1.011, 1.018)     1.016 (1.012, 1.020) 1.015(1.011, 1.020)     1.011(1.004, 1.018) 1.013(1.006, 1.021)   
PE < 110 8 (1.4) 1.304 (0.632, 2.694) 1.422 (0.686, 2.945) 17.626 0.001 7 (1.3) 1.489 (0.682, 3.251) 1.618(0.738, 3.543) 1.22 0.27 1 (1.8) 0.843(0.112, 6.329) 0.843(0.112, 6.345) 4.981 0.095
110–129 99 (1.1) 1 1    73 (0.9) 1 1    26 (2.1) 1 1   
130–149 166 (1.5) 1.405 (1.094, 1.804) 1.303 (1.006, 1.689)    94 (1.1) 1.186 (0.873, 1.613) 1.148(0.833, 1.580)    72 (3.0) 1.440(0.914, 2.266) 1.455(0.918, 2.306)   
≥ 150 11 (3.4) 3.259 (1.731, 6.137) 2.375 (1.203, 4.688)    5 (2.2) 2.519 (1.008, 6.296) 2.535(1.006, 6.390)    6 (5.8) 2.869(1.153, 7.138) 2.195(0.814, 5.919)   
Per-unit increment   1.026 (1.013, 1.038) 1.020 (1.007, 1.033)     1.015 (0.999, 1.030) 1.013(0.997, 1.030)     1.027(1.006, 1.049) 1.025(1.003, 1.047)   
Preterm birth < 110 41 (7.0) 1.415 (1.017, 1.969) 1.408 (1.008, 1.967) 15.572 0.001 37 (7.0) 1.436 (1.014, 2.036) 1.419(0.998, 2.019) 19.31 < 0.001 4 (7.1) 1.239(0.436, 3.522) 1.198(0.413, 3.479) 0.10 0.75
110–129 479 (5.1) 1 1    407 (5.0) 1 1    72 (5.8) 1 1   
130–149 499 (4.4) 0.863 (0.759, 0.981) 0.795 (0.695, 0.910)    359 (4.0) 0.803 (0.695, 0.929) 0.768(0.660, 0.894)    140 (5.9) 1.002(0.747, 1.342) 0.949(0.699, 1.289)   
≥ 150 8 (2.4) 0.465 (0.229, 0.944) 0.375 (0.183, 0.768)    3 (1.3) 0.258 (0.082, 0.808) 0.233(0.074, 0.735)    5 (4.9) 0.822(0.324, 2.083) 0.612(0.234, 1.598)   
Per-unit increment   0.990 (0.984, 0.996) 0.987 (0.980, 0.993)     0.984 (0.977, 0.991) 0.982(0.975, 0.989)     1.005(0.991, 1.020) 1.000(0.986, 1.015)   
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, PE pre-eclampsia, OR odds ratio