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Table 2 Description of outcomes used in RCT or cohort-based economic evaluations

From: Identifying and assessing the benefits of interventions for postnatal depression: a systematic review of economic evaluations

Study (Year) Intervention Outcomes Outcomes other than maternal and health outcomes How was the outcome measured and/or valued? Source Other outcomes measured in the trial but not used/maybe relevant in the economic evaluation Outcomes acknowledged but excluded
Boath (2003) [39] PBDU customised treatment • PND cases recovered CIS Cohort study • Anxiety
• Work leisure and family life
• Marriage quality and other similar dyads
Child and non-health; reasons for their non-inclusion not provided
Dukhovny (2013) [27] Telephone-based peer support intervention, access to standard postpartum care • PND cases averted EPDS (threshold of ≤12 for low risk), SCID RCT • Anxiety
• Loneliness
• Satisfaction with intervention
Hiscock (2007) [26] Individual structured maternal and child health consultations, a choice of behavioural interventions, ‘controlled crying’ or ‘camping out’ • Depression symptoms
• Mental and physical health scores
• Sleep quality and quantity
• Infant’s sleep problem (primary outcome)
• Infant’s temperament
Child EPDS (threshold > 9 for PND), SF-12, sleep questions, night waking indicator, Global Infant Temperament Scale RCT NA
MacArthura (2003) [31] Redesigned model of community postnatal care (midwifery-led) • PND score EPDS (score of ≥13 indicated risk) RCT • Physical and Mental Health
• Reported morbidity
• ‘Good practice’
• Women and professionals views about care
Child; reasons for its non-inclusion not discussed
Morrella (2000) [32] Community midwifery support workers • PND score EPDS (score of ≥12 indicated risk) RCT • General health perception
• Functional Social Support
• Breastfeeding
Morrell (2009) [37] Health visitor trained to identify and deliver CBA or person-centred approach (listening visits) • QALY The SF-6D, from a subset of SF-36 questions, was calculated. SF-6D scores estimated using UK tariffs. RCT • Proportion of at-risk women (primary)
• EPDS score
• Physical and mental health
• Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation
• Anxiety
• Perceived stressful impact of having a young child
• Couples relationship
• Cognitive, social and emotional development of infants
• Risk of developing autism
Child, partner/family; these outcomes could not included due to missing data
Petrou (2006) [33] Counselling and support package by trained health visitors • Duration of PND experienced SCID-II RCT Unclear what other outcomes were measured in the trial
Price (2015) [29] Enhanced engagement in home visiting via motivational interviewing and brief intervention (CBT and Interpersonal Therapy) • Depressive symptoms
• Social support
Non-health Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Sarason’s Social Support Questionnaire-Revised Cohort study NA
Sembi (2016) [41] Telephone peer support • Depressive symptoms
• Parent-infant interaction
• Anxiety
• Emotional support
• Parents’ satisfaction and efficacy in their parenting role
• Optimistic self-beliefs
• Couples relationship
• Infant temperament
• Perceptions of interventions
• General health
Child, non-health EPDS (score of > 9 or 10 indicated mild depression), CARE-Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Emotional Support Questionnaire, Parenting Sense of Competence scale, Generalised Self-efficacy Questionnaire, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Infant Temperament Questionnaire and Peer Support Evaluation Inventory, SF-12 RCT NA
Wigginsa (2004) [35] Health visitor support or Community group support • PND score EPDS (score ≥ 12 indicated high risk) RCT • Child injury
• Maternal smoking
• Social support
• Maternal and child health
• Infant feeding
• Mother-child interaction
• Household resources
  1. CBA Cognitive Behavioural Approach, CBT Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, ClS Clinical interview schedule, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, PBDU Parent and baby day unit, RCT Randomised Controlled Trial, SCID Structured Clinical Interview for Depression, SF Short Form, NA Not applicable
  2. aStudy focused on PND and other aspects – other outcomes used in the trial may not necessarily relate to PND