|Lead author (Year)||Intervention||Comparator||Country||Sample size, N; patient population||Primary aims of economic evaluation||Analytical approach|
|RCT or cohort-based economic evaluation|
|Boath (2003) ||PBDU customised treatment (consisting of one or more of the following: individual, couple and family counselling, group therapy, creative therapy, hobbies and activities, stress management, assertiveness training, yoga and relaxation, a group for parents and older children and pharmacotherapy)||RPC||UK||N = 60; Women with a baby aged 6 weeks-1 year, with the EPDS score above 12 and with a diagnosis of a major or minor depressive disorder.||Assess the cost-effectiveness of two alternative approaches to the PND treatment.||CEAa|
|Dukhovny (2013) ||Telephone-based peer support intervention, access to standard postpartum care||Usual care||Canada||N = 610; High-risk women with EPDS score > 9, able to speak English, following a live birth and discharge home||Determine the cost-effectiveness of a peer support intervention to prevent PND.||CEA|
|Hiscock (2007) ||Individual structured maternal and child health consultations, a choice of behavioural interventions, ‘controlled crying’ or ‘camping out’||Usual care||Australia||N = 328; Mothers reporting an infant sleep problem in the concurrent 7-month questionnaire||Assess the effectiveness and costs of an intervention targeting infant sleep problems.||CCA|
|MacArthur (2003) ||Redesigned model of community postnatal care (midwifery-led)||Current care||UK||N = 36 clusters; All pregnant women registered at the practice antenatally from about 34 weeks gestation.||Develop, implement and test the cost-effectiveness of redesigned postnatal care compared with current care on women’s physical and psychological health.||CCA|
|Morrell (2000) ||Community midwifery support worker||Postnatal midwifery care||UK||N = 471; All women who delivered a baby at the recruiting hospital living within the study area, were aged 17 or over, and could understand English.||Measure the effect and the total cost per woman of providing postnatal support at home.||CMA|
|Morrell (2009) ||Health visitor trained to identify and deliver CBA or person-centred approach||Health visitor usual care||UK||N = 418; Women at risk of PND indicated by EPDS score ≥ 12, registered with participating GP practices, 36 weeks pregnant during recruitment, who had a live baby and were on a collaborating Health Visitor’s caseload.||Investigate outcomes for postnatal women attributed to the intervention, and to establish its cost-effectiveness.||CUAa|
|Petrou (2006) ||Counselling and support package by trained health visitors||RPC||UK||N = 151; Women attending clinics at 26–28 weeks of gestation, identified as at high risk of developing PND||Assess the cost-effectiveness of a preventive counselling and support package for women at high risk of developing PND.||CEA|
|Price (2015) ||Enhanced engagement in home visiting via motivational interviewing and brief intervention (CBT and Interpersonal Therapy)||Usual care||USA||N = 25; Pregnant and postpartum women in low-income and ethnic minorities communities meeting risk criteria for major depression||Examine the feasibility of enhanced engagement in routine community care over usual care maternal and child health home visiting.||CCAa|
|Sembi (2016) ||Telephone peer support||Standard care||UK||N = 28; Women > 16 years when giving birth, experiencing depressive symptom indicated by EPDS threshold ≥10 and/or clinical judgement, and potentially receptive to receiving intervention.||Pilot a telephone peer-support intervention for women experiencing PND.||CCAa|
|Wiggins (2004) ||Health visitor support or Community group support||Standard services||UK||N = 498; Women living in deprived areas, who gave birth in the specified time period and of any ethnicity.||Measure the impact and cost-effectiveness of two alternative strategies for providing support to mothers in disadvantaged inner city area.||CCAa|
|Model-based economic evaluation|
|Battye (2012) ||Befriending service (telephone helpline and one-to-one support by trained ‘befriender’ volunteers)||No intervention||UK||
Quantitative study: N = 39|
Qualitative study: N not provided
|Demonstrate value for money of Acacia Family Support’s service.||CBA|
|Bauer (2011) ||Universal health visiting (postnatal screening using EPDS and treatment [CBT + antidepressant])||Routine postnatal care||UK||
Hypothetical cohort of women for screening.
Hypothetical cohort of women with moderate to severe PND for the treatment
|Identify and analyse the costs and economic pay-offs of PND interventions.||CUAa|
|Campbell (2008) ||
programme (using PHQ-2) and treatments (antidepressants, psychological therapies or social support) according to severity of PND.
|Current practice||New Zealand||N not provided; Mothers who gave birth in any 12 month period, regardless of the number of previous births||Evaluate value for money of implementing a screening programme for PND.||CUAa, CEAa|
|Hewitt (2009) ||
2. Beck Depression Inventory
1. Structured psychological therapy
2. Listening visit
(Both with preceding additional care)
Hypothetical population of postnatal women (depressed or not) managed in primary care six weeks postnatally
Hypothetical cohorts of 1000 women with depression in the postnatal period
Evaluate the cost-effectiveness for a range of feasible identification strategies for PND in primary care.
Clarify from the NICE guidance whether treatment strategies were cost-effective compared with usual care.
|NCCMH (2014) ||
1. EPDS only
2. Whooley questions followed by EPDS
3. Whooley questions followed by PHQ-9
1. Facilitated self-help based on CBT principles
2. Listening visits
(Both in addition to standard postnatal care)
Hypothetical cohorts of 1000 postnatal women undergoing screening for depression.
Hypothetical cohorts of 1000 women with sub-threshold/mild to moderate depression
Assess the relative cost-effectiveness of formal identification methods for PND.
Assess the cost-effectiveness of different types of psychological and psychosocial, relative to standard postnatal care alone.
|Stevenson (2010) ||Group CBT||RPC||UK||Secondary RCT N = 45; Women meeting a standardised PND diagnosis or scoring EPDS threshold ≥12.||Evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group CBT compared with currently used packages.||CUAa|
|Taylor (2014) ||Social support (e.g. advocacy, befriending)||No intervention||UK||Estimated N = 100; Women assessed as vulnerable to PND, either as a self-referral, or referred via the mid-wife/GP.||Determine the benefits and costs of the Perinatal Support Project to prevent PND.||CBAa|