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Table 4 Individual and facility-level factors associated with Elective Caesarean Section

From: Patterns of caesarean section in HIV infected and non-infected women in Malawi: is caesarean section used for PMTCT?

Item aOR (95% CI) All Women
(55,443)
p aOR (95% CI) Women with Unknown HIV status
(n = 4764)
p aOR (95% CI) HIV- Women
(n = 29,747)
p aOR (95% CI) HIV+ Women
(n = 20,932)
p
Year of Admission 2010 1 0.03 1 0.01 1 0.02 1 < 0.09
2011 0.63 (0.42–0.94) 0.47 (0.29–0.76) 0.64 (0.43–0.96) 0.84 (0.55–1.30)
2012 0.55 (0.34–0.88) 0.61 (0.31–1.22) 0.53 (0.33–0.86) 0.55 (0.28–1.06)
2013 0.53 (0.35–0.83) 0.40 (0.21–0.78) 0.54 (0.36–0.82) 0.68 (0.39–1.19)
No of deliveries 0 1 < 0.01 1 0.11 1 < 0.01 1 < 0.01
1 0.76 (0.66–0.87) 0.74 (0.57–0.96) 0.77 (0.66–0.90) 0.59 (0.46–0.75)
2–3 0.65 (0.51–0.82) 0.68 (0.42–1.11) 0.65 (0.51–0.83) 0.49 (0.38–0.63)
> 3 0.46 (0.34–0.63) 0.68 (0.40–1.16) 0.45 (0.31–0.65) 0.31 (0.22–0.43)
Age (years) < 20 1 < 0.01 1 < 0.01 1 < 0.01 1 < 0.01
20–24 1.38 (1.18–1.61) 2.07 (1.42–3.03) 1.29 (1.09–1.53) 1.46 (1.12–1.91)
25–29 1.68 (1.35–2.09) 2.11 (1.21–3.67) 1.60 (1.25–2.06) 1.86 (1.33–2.60)
30–34 1.46 (1.10–1.92) 1.44 (0.81–2.54) 1.37 (1.00–1.88) 2.19 (1.40–3.43)
> 34 1.68 (1.24–2.27) 1.93 (1.07–3.50) 1.58 (1.08–2.32) 2.26 (1.57–3.27)
Singletons Yes 1 < 0.01 1 0.13 1 < 0.01 1 < 0.01
No 1.98 (1.55–2.54) 1.48 (0.90–2.46) 2.06 (1.54–2.77) 2.27 (1.51–3.41)
ARVs during Pregnancy None N/A   N/A   N/A   1 0.04
<4wks N/A N/A N/A 0.96 (0.73–1.27)
≥4wks N/A N/A N/A 0.81 (0.68–0.96)
Facility Ownership Government 1 0.69 1 0.47 1 0.72 1 0.80
CHAM 1.63 (0.69–3.83 1.19 (0.74–1.91) 1.75 (0.72–4.27) 1.08 (0.59–1.99)
Facility Location Rural 1 0.03 1 0.01 1 0.03 1 < 0.01
Urban 1.95 (1.06–3.56) 1.52 (1.17–1.98) 2.02 (1.05–3.86) 2.15 (1.27–3.64)
  1. CHAM Christian Health Association of Malawi, aOR adjusted odds ratio, ARVs antiretrovirals