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Table 3 Individual and facility-level factors associated with C-Section among women delivering in 17 large health facilities in Malawi

From: Patterns of caesarean section in HIV infected and non-infected women in Malawi: is caesarean section used for PMTCT?

Item aOR (95% CI) All Women (55,443) p aOR (95% CI) Women with Unknown HIV status (n = 5302) P aOR (95% CI) HIV- Women (n = 31,978) p aOR (95% CI) HIV+ Women (n = 20,436) P
Year of admission 2010 1 0.07 1 0.09 1 0.02 1 0.06
2011 0.71 (0.50–1.01) 0.58 (0.37–0.91) 0.71 (0.50–1.00) 1.00 (0.73–1.38)
2012 0.65 (0.45–0.93) 0.71 (0.42–1.19) 0.61 (0.43–0.88) 0.83 (0.56–1.22)
2013 0.67 (0.49–0.92) 0.67 (0.43–1.07) 0.65 (0.48–0.87) 1.04 (0.73–1.49)
Maternal Obstetric Complication None 1 < 0.01 1 < 0.01 1 < 0.01 1 < 0.01
Hemorrhage 5.85 (3.12–10.97) 7.02 (4.26–11.58) 5.80 (3.03–11.12) 4.25 (1.72–10.47)
OPL 32.23 (17.15–60.57) 29.43 (17.75–48.80) 33.61 (16.99–66.47) 29.88 (11.89–75.13)
Preeclampsia 21.76 (10.32–45.86) 27.18 (14.18–52.09) 22.14 (9.83–49.88) 11.23 (4.56–27.68)
Sepsis 4.25 (1.30–13.85) 1.35 (0.14–13.18) 8.13 (1.57–42.16) 1.20 (0.36–4.02)
RU 160.25 (75.41–340.51) 141.95 (34.98–576.08) 186.48 (66.45–523.27) 94.91 (43.33–207.89)
Others 52.85 (31.25–89.39) 51.75 (35.26–75.97) 55.-81 (33.24–93.69) 38.01 (15.13–95.52)
Infant Complication None 1 0.01 1 < 0.01 1 < 0.01 1 < 0.01
Prematurity 0.99 (0.77–1.29) 1.12 (0.61–2.05) 0.95 (0.61–1.46) 1.11 (0.87–1.42)
LBW 1.40 (1.07–1.83) 0.77 (0.38–1.58) 1.75 (1.28–2.39) 1.09 (0.77–1.53)
Asphyxia 1.86 (1.29–2.67) 3.02 (1.83–4.96) 1.65 (1.08–2.53) 1.92 (1.33–2.76)
Others 1.59 (1.15–2.19) 2.20 (1.07–4.52) 1.53 (1.10–2.11) 1.14 (0.73–1.78)
No of previous deliveries 0 1 < 0.01 1 0.31 1 < 0.01 1 < 0.01
1 0.83 (0.74–0.93) 0.84 (0.63–1.12) 0.84 (0.74–0.95) 0.61 (0.49–0.76)
2–3 0.68 (0.56–0.83) 0.79 (0.55–1.13) 0.68 (0.55–0.84) 0.50 (0.40–0.62)
> 3 0.52 (0.41–0.66) 0.72 (0.50–1.05) 0.51 (0.39–0.67) 0.35 (0.26–0.45)
Age (years) < 20 1 < 0.01 1 0.02 1 0.01 1 < 0.01
20–24 1.28 (1.12–1.47) 1.75 (1.25–2.44) 1.20 (1.04–1.39) 1.37 (1.12–1.67)
25–29 1.56 (1.27–1.93) 1.96 (1.23–3.11) 1.49 (1.16–1.92) 1.72 (1.34–2.21)
30–34 1.44 (1.15–1.81) 1.66 (0.99–2.78) 1.35 (1.03–1.78) 1.98 (1.50–2.61)
> 34 1.63 (1.34–1.99) 1.62 (1.00–2.64) 1.57 (1.21–2.03) 2.24 (1.75–2.85)
Singletons Yes 1 < 0.01 1 0.35 1 0.03 1 0.04
No 1.49 (1.10–2.03) 1.31 (0.74–2.33) 1.51 (1.05–2.16) 1.58 (1.03–2.43)
ARVs during Pregnancy None N/A   N/A   N/A   1 0.83
<4wks N/A N/A N/A 0.98 (0.72–1.32)
≥4wks N/A N/A N/A 0.96 (0.81–1.12)
Facility Ownership Govt. 1 0.90 1 0.57 1 0.36 1 0.77
CHAM 1.42 (0.65–3.13) 1.27 (0.55–2.94) 1.48 (0.64–3.41) 1.09 (0.62–1.90)
Facility Location Rural 1 0.27 1 0.26 1 0.13 1 0.23
Urban 1.39 (0.91–2.12) 1.19 (0.88–1.62) 1.47 (0.89–2.41) 1.16 (0.91–1.46)
  1. OPL obstructed/prolonged labor, RU Ruptured Uterus, CHAM Christian Health Association of Malawi, LBW Low Birth Weight, aOR adjusted odds ratio, ARVs antiretrovirals