Skip to main content

Table 2 Proportion of women who delivered through C-section according to baseline characteristics

From: Patterns of caesarean section in HIV infected and non-infected women in Malawi: is caesarean section used for PMTCT?

Item All Women
(n = 62,033)
Women with unknown HIV status (n = 5741) HIV negative women
n = 33,099)
HIV positive women
n = 23,193
Year of admission 2010 15.2 (14.2–16.3) 17.2 (14.3–20.7) 15.1 (13.9–16.4) 13.7 (12.8–14.6)
2011 13.7 (12.9–14.5) 13.4 (11.7–15.4) 13.8 (12.9–14.9) 13.3 (12.5–14.1)
2012 13.4 (12.8–13.9) 18.2 (16.6–20.1) 12.8 (12.2–13.5) 9.6 (8.8–10.5)
2013 13.8 (13.3–14.4) 18.1 (16.2–20.1) 13.5 (12.9–14.1) 11.0 (10.2–11.9)
Maternal complication None 6.6 (6.3–6.9) 6.3 (6.1–6.6) 6.8 (6.6–6.9) 5.1 (4.8–5.4)
Hemorrhage 29.5 (26.5–32.8) 34.7 (32.0–37.6) 30.2 (28.7–31.7) 19.0 (16.4–22.0)
OPL 68.2 (65.8–70.4) 68.0 (65.9–70.0) 69.2 (68.2–70.1) 60.9 (58.0–63.6)
Preeclampsia 60.2 (55.0–65.2) 64.8 (60.4–69.1) 61.2 (58.7–63.6) 39.3 (32.3–46.8)
Sepsis 16.5 (7.3–33.3) 5.1 (2.1–11.5) 30.7 (23.4–39.2) 6.0 (2.2–14.9)
RU 87.4 (78.5–93.0) 84.7 (78.6–89.4) 90.7 (87.6–93.1) 72.3 (60.2–81.9)
Unspecified 75.7 (73.5–77.8) 77.0 (75.3–78.6) 77.2 (76.3–78.0) 61.4 (58.7–64.1)
Unknown 33.0 (27.6–38.8) 31.9 (28.1–36.1) 36.6 (33.8–39.4) 20.6 (16.2–25.8)
Infant complication None 12.4 (12.0–12.8) 13.9 (13.5–14.3) 12.3 (12.1–12.4) 11.2 (10.7–11.7)
Prematurity 17.0 (15.1–19.1) 21.7 (19.9–23.7) 16.1 (15.3–17.0) 15.2 (13.3–17.4)
LBW 20.8 (18.4–23.4) 16.1 (14.5–17.8) 23.0 (21.9–24.1) 18.0 (15.8–20.4)
Asphyxia 29.2 (26.7–31.8) 40.0 (37.5–42.5) 26.8 (25.8–27.8) 30.2 (27.0–33.6)
Unspecified 32.4 (29.5–35.5) 36.8 (34.2–39.5) 31.8 (30.6–33.1) 29.2 (25.9–32.7)
Unknown 15.7 (12.9–19.1) 15.5 (12.5–19.0) 31.2 (29.1–33.4) 2.7 (2.1–3.5)
No of previous deliveries 0 16.3 (15.5–17.1) 16.2 (15.5–16.9) 16.2 (16.0–16.5) 18.7 (17.3–20.3)
1 14.2 (13.3–15.0) 15.9 (15.1–16.8) 14.0 (13.7–14.3) 12.6 (11.6–13.6)
2–3 13.3 (12.6–14.0) 17.8 (17.0–18.5) 12.7 (12.5–13.0) 11.6 (11.0–12.3)
> 3 11.2 (10.5–12.1) 13.8 (13.0–14.6) 11.0 (10.7–11.3) 9.9 (9.2–10.6)
Unknown 17.4 (14.1–21.3) 20.2 (18.0–22.7) 16.2 (14.6–17.9) 14.3 (10.4–19.3)
Age in years < 20 14.3 (13.5–15.1) 13.3 (12.6–14.0) 14.5 (14.2–14.8) 13.6 (12.0–15.5)
20–24 14.6 (13.9–15.4) 18.5 (17.8–19.3) 14.2 (13.9–14.4) 12.3 (11.4–13.2)
25–29 14.6 (13.8–15.5) 18.7 (17.8–19.6) 14.4 (14.1–14.7) 11.8 (11.1–12.6)
30–34 12.1 (11.2–13.0) 13.7 (12.8–14.7) 11.8 (11.4–12.2) 11.9 (11.1–12.8)
> 34 12.6 (11.5–13.8) 15.3 (14.2–16.5) 12.2 (11.8–12.7) 11.9 (10.9–13.0)
Unknown 13.6 (11.1–16.4) 15.3 (13.6–17.3) 13.0 (11.9–14.1) 12.4 (9.3–16.3)
Singleton Yes 13.7 (13.4–14.1) 16.0 (15.7–16.4) 13.6 (13.4–13.7) 11.7 (11.3–12.2)
No 20.4 (17.9–23.0) 19.7 (17.8–21.8) 20.4 (19.5–21.4) 20.8 (18.2–23.4)
ARVs during pregnancy None 11.7 (11.1–12.3) N/A 11.7 (11.1–12.3)
<4wks 12.4 (11.3–13.7) 12.4 (11.3–13.7)
≥4wks 12.5 (11.9–13.2) 12.5 (11.9–13.3)
HIV- & Unknown 14.1 (13.7–14.6) N/A
Facility ownership Government 13.8 (13.4–14.2) 16.2 (15.8–16.5) 13.5 (13.4–13.7) 12.2 (11.8–12.7)
CHAM 15.3 (14.1–16.7) 16.6 (15.0–18.4) 15.7 (15.2–16.1) 11.3 (10.1–12.5)
Facility location Rural 13.6 (13.4–13.7) 16.0 (15.6–16.4) 13.3 (13.1–13.4) 11.4 (10.9–11.9)
Urban 15.7 (15.4–16.0) 17.3 (16.3–18.3) 15.9 (15.5–16.2) 13.6 (12.9–14.4)
Totals   14.0 (13.6–14.4) 16.2 (15.1–17.3) 13.8 (13.3–14.2) 12.1 (9.1–15.1)
  1. OPL obstructed/prolonged labor, RU Ruptured Uterus, CHAM Christian Health Association of Malawi, LBW Low Birth Weight, aOR adjusted odds ratio, ARVs antiretrovirals