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Table 3 Demographic characteristics of women who participated in the survey

From: Enablers and barriers for women with gestational diabetes mellitus to achieve optimal glycaemic control – a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework

Characteristics Women total
n = 60 (%)
Age (years)a 33 (±4.5)
Primigravida (G1P0) 27 (45)
BMI category b
 - Normal 21 (35)
 - Overweight 11 (18.3)
 - Obese (Class I) 11 (18.3)
 - Obese (Class II) 8 (13.3)
 - Obese (Class II) 9 (15)
 - Total obese 28 (46.6)
Ethnicity c
 - European 24 (40)
 - Māori 6 (10)
 - Asian 22 (36.7)
 - Pacific Peoples 7 (11.6)
 - MELAA 1 (1.7)
Highest educational qualifications after leaving school d
1. No qualification 3 (5)
2. Level 1 certificate 2 (3.3)
3. Level 2 certificate 4 (6.7)
4. Level 3 certificate 6 (10)
5. Level 4 certificate 4 (6.7)
6. Level 5 and level 6 Diploma 13 (21.7)
7. Bachelor degree and level 7 qualification 25 (41.6)
8. Post-graduate and honours degree 1 (1.7)
9. Master degree 2 (3.3)
New Zealand Deprivation indexe
 - 1 (least deprived) 8 (13.5)
 - 2 5 (8.4)
 - 3 5 (8.4)
 - 4 10 (16.7)
 - 5 7 (11.8)
 - 6 2 (3.4)
 - 7 5 (8.5)
 - 8 6 (10)
 - 9 5 (8.7)
 - 10 (most deprived) 6 (10)
Lead Maternity Carer (LMC) f
 - Midwife 55 (91.7)
 - Obstetrician 1 (1.7)
 - Hospital Team 4 (6.7)
Health history
Gestational age at GDM diagnosis (weeks)a 27.8 (±2.0)
Previous GDM 10 (16.7)
Previous hypertension 2 (3.3)
Current hypertension 3 (5)
Family history of hypertension 24 (40)
Family history of diabetes 27 (45)
Current smoker 3 (15)
Capillary blood glucose testing (CBG)
Weeks of self-testing capillary blood glucose at interviewa 6.8 (±2.3)
Daily self-testing CBG: four times
(Before breakfast, after breakfast, after lunch and after dinner)
32 (53)
Daily self-testing CBG: six times
(Before and after breakfast, lunch and dinner)
28 (47)
Current treatment
 - Diet only 18 (30)
 - Insulin and diet 13 (21.7)
 - Metformin and diet 17 (28.3)
 - Insulin, Metformin and diet 12 (20)
Interview type
Face-to-face interview 34 (57)
Phone interview 26 (43)
  1. Figures are numbers and percentages
  2. aMean and standard deviation
  3. bBMI categories: Underweight < 18.50; Normal range: ≥ 18.55–24.99; Overweight: ≥ 25.00–29.99; Obese (Class I) ≥ 30.00–34.99; Obese (Class II): Severe obese ≥35.00–39.99; Obese (Class II): Morbid obese: ≥ 40.00 (according to WHO and Ministry of Health categories) [44, 45]
  4. cas categorised by New Zealand government statistics groups for major ethnic groups. MELAA is an acronym for Middle Eastern/Latin American/African. http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2013-census/profile-and-summary-reports/infographic-culture-identity.aspx
  5. das categorised by New Zealand government statistics groups. http://archive.stats.govt.nz/?_ga=2.86002648.1123263351.1521524783-1632759419.1521524783
  6. eas categorised by New Zealand 2013 Deprivation Index, University of Otago, Department of Public Health. Deprivation score was unknown for one woman, as her address had no meshblock listed
  7. Http://www.otago.ac.nz/wellington/departments/publichealth/research/hirp/otago020194.html
  8. fA Lead Maternity Carer (LMC) in New Zealand provides lead maternity care (is in charge). This can be either a Midwife, Obstetrician, or GP. https://www.midwife.org.nz/in-new-zealand/contexts-for-practice