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Table 2 Characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of women

From: Impact of adopting the 2013 World Health Organization criteria for diagnosis of gestational diabetes in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort: a prospective study

  Group 1: Non-GDM based on both 1999 and 2013 WHO criteria (n = 861) Group 2: Reclassified from GDM to non-GDM using 2013 WHO criteria (n = 89) Group 3: Reclassified from non-GDM to GDM using 2013 WHO criteria (n = 27) Group 4: GDM based on both 1999 and 2013 WHO criteria (n = 115) P value (Group 2 vs. 1) P value (Group 3 vs. 1) P value (Group 4 vs. 1)
Characteristics
 Age, years [mean (SD)] 30.2 (5.1) 32.2 (4.9) 31.2 (5.4) 32.7 (4.6) 0.001 0.348 < 0.001
 Body mass index, kgm−2 [mean (SD)] 23.3 (4.6) 24.0 (4.5) 28.0 (5.7) 25.5 (4.9) 0.195 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Gestational weight gain, z-score [mean (SD)] −0.8 (1.1) −0.8 (0.9) −0.9 (1.2) −1.1 (1.1) 0.581 0.792 0.024
Education, n (%)
 None/ primary/ secondary 573 (67.5) 48 (53.9) 20 (80.0) 70 (60.9) 0.010 0.187 0.157
 Tertiary 276 (32.5) 41 (46.1) 5 (20.0) 45 (39.1)    
 Multiparous, n (%) 450 (52.9) 46 (51.7) 20 (74.1) 70 (60.9) 0.821 0.030 0.109
 Positive family history of diabetes, n (%) 242 (28.1) 28 (31.5) 16 (59.3) 39 (33.9) 0.504 < 0.001 0.197
 Smoking during pregnancy, n (%) 23 (2.7) 2 (2.3) 1 (3.8) 1 (0.9) > 0.950 0.517 0.346
Type of conception, n (%)
 Natural 810 (94.1) 83 (93.3) 25 (92.6) 98 (85.2) 0.757 0.673 < 0.001
 in vitro fertilization 51 (5.9) 6 (6.7) 2 (7.4) 17 (14.8)    
Maternal Outcomes
 Insulin requirement, n (%) 0 5 (5.6) 0 12 (10.4) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Induction of labour, n (%) 260 (34.9) 36 (50.0) 9 (42.9) 51 (51.5) 0.011 0.448 0.001
 Caesarean section, n (%) 242 (30.1) 32 (40.0) 11 (40.7) 34 (30.6) 0.069 0.239 0.915
 Instrumental delivery, n (%) 48 (7.9) 9 (15.8) 0 4 (4.9) 0.049 0.626 0.346
 Hypertension and/ or preeclampsia, n (%) 57 (6.6) 5 (5.6) 3 (11.1) 16 (13.9) 0.716 0.420 0.005
Neonatal Outcomes
 Gestation at birth, weeks [mean (SD)] 38.4 (1.4) 38.2 (1.4) 38.1 (1.3) 37.9 (2.2) 0.078 0.200 0.008
 Prematurity, n (%) 52 (6.1) 11 (12.4) 2 (7.4) 13 (11.3) 0.025 0.680 0.038
 Apgar score at 1 min [mean (SD)] 8.9 (0.6) 8.8 (0.6) 8.6 (1.6) 8.8 (0.8) 0.297 0.379 0.179
 Apgar score at 5 min [mean (SD)] 9.0 (0.1) 9.0 (0.1) 8.9 (0.6) 9.0 (0.3) 0.456 0.369 0.569
 Birth weight-for-gestational age, z-score [mean (SD)] 0.1 (1.1) 0.1 (1.1) 0.7 (1.2) 0.5 (1.6) 0.861 0.006 0.012
 Small for gestational age, n (%) 91 (10.7) 10 (11.2) 1 (3.7) 11 (9.6) 0.881 0.348 0.706
 Large for gestational age, n (%) 124 (14.6) 14 (15.7) 6 (22.2) 25 (21.7) 0.776 0.271 0.047
 Macrosomia, n (%) 15 (1.8) 1 (1.1) 1 (3.7) 2 (1.7) > 0.950 0.397 > 0.950
 Shoulder dystocia, n (%) 1 (0.1) 2 (2.4) 0 0 0.025 > 0.950 > 0.950
 Hypoglycaemia, n (%) 15 (1.9) 6 (7.3) 1 (3.8) 18 (16.2) 0.011 0.413 < 0.001
 Neonatal jaundice requiring phototherapy, n (%) 86 (11.2) 17 (20.2) 7 (26.9) 22 (20.2) 0.015 0.024 0.007
 Neonatal intensive care unit admission, n (%) 30 (3.6) 5 (5.7) 2 (7.7) 6 (5.2) 0.368 0.247 0.427
  1. GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, WHO World Health Organization, P value based on independent t-test, Pearson’s Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate