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Table 2 Obstetric outcomes and indications for operative delivery

From: De-medicalization of birth by reducing the use of oxytocin for augmentation among first-time mothers – a prospective intervention study

  Before the intervention n = 431   After the intervention n = 664   
n % n % p-value
Water as pain relief 105 24.4 224 33.7 0.001
Epidural analgesia 280 65.0 409 61.6 0.26
Pudendal analgesia 28 6.5 106 16 < 0.001
Amniotomy 206 47.8 275 41.4 0.04
Episiotomy 141 32.7 215 32.4 0.91
Third degree perineal tears 7 1.6 14 2.1 0.67
Mean blood loss in ml (SD) 435 (257)   462 (299)   0.11
Spontaneous vaginal birth 286 66.4 453 68.2 0.55
Operative vaginal delivery 116 26.9 143 21.5 0.04
Indications for Operative vaginal birth      
Dystocia 34 29.3 66 46.2 0.01
Asphyxia 61 52.6 69 48.2 0.53
Other reasons 21 18.1 8 5.6 0.002
Emergency caesarean section 29 6.7 68 10.2 0.05
Indications for CS      
Dystocia 17 58.6 34 50.0 0.51
Asphyxia 9 31 26 38.3 0.64
Other reasons 3 10.3 8 11.7 0.57