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Table 4 Univariate analyses of possible confounding variables influencing birth weight, in full-term infants (n = 1124)

From: Smoking during pregnancy and harm reduction in birth weight: a cross-sectional study

Variable β SE p CI (β; 95%)
Age at delivery (years)b −9.9 4.2 0.018 (−18.1 to −1.7)
  ≤ 8 years of education 35.04 47.94 0.465 (−58.92 to 128.99)
 9 to 11 years of education 8.63 44.3 0.846 (−78.35 to 95.62)
 Employed 24.5 45.6 0.592 (−65.2 to 114.2)
Live with a partnerb 91.9 69.2 0.185 (−44.1 to 227.9)
First pregnancyb 9.1 6.0 0.132 (−2.7 to 21.0)
Interval between deliveries (years)b 149.8 42.9 0.001 (65.5 to 234.0)
 Pregestational obesity or overweight −55.7 478.5 0.907 (− 995.8 to 884.4)
Prenatal care in public serviceb 77.7 40.6 0.056 (−2.0 to 157.3)
≥ 7 prenatal medical visitsb 108.4 44.7 0.016 (20.7 to 196.1)
 Alcohol consumption 4.8 73.6 0.948 (− 139.6 to 149.2)
Illegal drug useb − 247.6 170.7 0.147 (− 582.6 to 87.3)
 Participation in prenatal group −31.9 35.6 0.371 (− 101.8 to 38.0)
 Advised regarding warning signs −13.6 31.2 0.662 (−74.9 to 47.6)
 Use of folic acid and iron sulfate 11.5 39.2 0.770 (−65.4 to 88.3)
Emotional problemsb 81.9 54.1 0.130 (−24.3 to 188.2)
Anemiab − 145.2 109.9 0.187 (−361.2 to 70.8)
High blood pressure/pre-eclampsia/eclampsia/ HELLP syndromea, b − 175.5 114.5 0.126 (−400.5 to 49.6)
 Diabetes −132.3 121.2 0.275 (− 370.5 to 105.8)
Hyperemesisb − 229.8 120.0 0.056 (−465.7 to 6.1)
 Hemorrhage/bleeding/ threatened abortion −105.6 113.3 0.352 (− 328.2 to 117.0)
Infectionb − 165.9 100.4 0.099 (− 363.1 to 31.4)
  1. aHELLP hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count
  2. bSelected as potential confounder