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Table 2 The association between PPD and certain risk factors (in which total n5 in the PPD group) analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model

From: Antepartum urinary tract infection and postpartum depression in Taiwan – a nationwide population-based study

  Crude odds ratio 95% Confidence Interval Adjusted odds ratio 95% Confidence Interval
Antepartum UTI 1.36 (1.05, 1.76)a 1.27 (1.07, 1.65)a
 Upper UTI 3.28 (1.45, 7.41)b 2.97 (1.31, 6.77)b
 Lower UTI 1.29 (1.04, 1.68)a 1.21 (1.02, 1.58)a
Age group (reference: 20–24)
 20–24 1   1  
 25–29 1.00 (0.74, 1.37) 1.05 (0.77, 1.43)
 30–34 0.89 (0.65, 1.22) 0.97 (0.71, 1.34)
 35–39 0.92 (0.62, 1.36) 1.02 (0.69, 1.53)
40 2.89 (1.90, 4.40)c 1.98 (1.20, 3.29)b
Monthly income (TWD) (reference:< 20,000)
 20,000–40,000 0.82 (0.65, 1.03) 0.86 (0.68, 1.09)
 40,000–60,000 0.57 (0.35, 0.93)a 0.59 (0.36, 0.97)a
60,000 0.26 (0.37, 1.86) 0.25 (0.04, 1.81)
Co-morbidity disease
 Chronic pulmonary disease 1.71 (1.05, 2.78)a 0.87 (0.50, 1.53)
 Hypertension 3.07 (1.93, 4.89)c 1.11 (0.61, 2.04)
 Hyperlipidemia 3.04 (1.43, 6.47)b 1.20 (0.52, 2.75)
 Heart disease 3.20 (2.25, 4.57)c 1.95 (1.26, 3.02)b
 Cerebrovascular disease 5.73 (3.02, 10.87)c 1.36 (0.58, 3.19)
 Chronic kidney disease 4.86 (1.98, 11.92)b 1.19 (0.42, 3.38)
  1. Note 1. a: p < 0.05, b: p < 0.01, c: p < 0.001
  2. Note 2. TWD refers to New Taiwan dollars, of which 1 US dollar = 30 TWD