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Table 5 Results related to medical/technical aspects of care, cross-tabulated by type of hospital

From: Care quality following intrauterine death in Spanish hospitals: results from an online survey

  

Type of hospital

 

Total (n = 796)

Public (n = 593)

Private (n = 203)

  

n (%)

n (%)

n (%)

χ2, p*

Phi

Mode of delivery

 Vaginal (total)

667 (83.8)

521 (87.9)

146 (71.9)

28.29,

p < 0.001

−.189

  Vaginal - induced

578 (72.6)

449 (86.2)

129 (88.4)

.46,

p = 0.494

  Vaginal - instrumentalised

113 (16.9)

73 (14.0)

40 (27.4)

14.52,

p < 0.001

.148

  Vaginal - natural

76 (11.4)

63 (12.1)

13 (8.9)

1.14,

p = 0.284

 Caesarean section (total)

118 (14.8)

67 (11.3)

51 (25.1)

22.89,

p < 0.001

.170

  Planned caesarean

22 (2.8)

10 (1.7)

12 (5.9)

10.04,

p = 0.002

.112

  Emergency caesarean

80 (10.1)

49 (8.3)

31 (15.3)

8.21,

p = 0.004

.102

  Due to failed induction

16 (2.0)

8 (1.3)

8 (3.9)

5.16,

p = 0.023

.080

 Other

9 (1.1)

3 (0.5)

6 (3.0)

**

  

 Not stated

2 (0.3)

2 (0.3)

0 (0.0)

**

  

Mode of delivery ≥26 weeks gestation

(n = 475)

(n = 357)

(n = 118)

   

 Vaginal

364 (76.6)

296 (82.9)

68 (57.6)

31.61,

p < 0.001

−.358

 Caesarean section

109 (22.9)

60 (16.8)

49 (41.5)

30.64,

p < 0.001

.254

Accompaniment during the birth

 Accompanied during the birth (total)[1]

561 (70.7)

436 (73.6)

125 (61.9)

10.05,

p = 0.002

−.113

  Vaginal births

534 (80.2)

427 (82.0)

107 (73.8)

4.76,

p = 0.029

−.085

  Caesarean births

25 (21.2)

9 (13.4)

16 (31.4)

5.58,

p = 0.018

.217

 Partner/other not allowed to accompany (total)[2]

138 (17.3)

94 (15.9)

44 (21.7)

3.58,

p = 0.059

  Vaginal births

80 (12.0)

57 (10.9)

23 (15.8)

2.50,

p = 0.114

  Caesarean births

54 (45.8)

34 (50.7)

20 (39.2)

1.55,

p = 0.213

Administration of sedatives/ benzodiazepines***

 Administered at least once

382 (48.0)

274 (46.2)

108 (53.2)

2.96,

p = 0.085

 Administered more than once

61 (7.7)

41 (6.9)

20 (9.9)

1.84,

p = 0.174

Reason for taking sedatives

 Patient asked for something to help her relax

130 (34.0)

96 (35.0)

34 (31.5)

.436,

p = 0.509

 HP told patient to take something to relax

203 (53.1)

143 (52.2)

60 (55.6)

.352,

p = 0.553

 HP administered without consulting

68 (17.8)

49 (17.9)

19 (17.6)

.004,

p = 0.947

 Effects of sedatives explained at 1st admin. (partially or fully)[3]

167 (43.8)

117 (42.7)

50 (46.7)

.507,

p = 0.476

Pathology studies conducted

 At least one pathology study/test conducted

667 (85.5)

519 (89.2)

148 (74.7)

24.82,

p < 0.001

.178

 General autopsy

479 (61.4)

387 (66.5)

92 (46.5)

25.01,

p < 0.001

−.179

  Stillbirths

396 (66.8)

314 (71.5)

82 (53.2)

17.17,

p < 0.001

−.170

  Termination of pregnancy

83 (44.4)

73 (51.0)

10 (22.7)

10.93,

p = 0.001

−.242

 Placental autopsy

301 (38.6)

230 (39.5)

71 (35.9)

.835,

p = 0.361

 Not stated

16 (2.0)

11 (1.9)

5 (2.5)

.284,

p = 0.284

  1. *Pearson’s Chi-squared, significance level set at p <0.05
  2. **Chi-squared not calculated due to minimum requirement of 5 cases per cell
  3. ***Multiple responses permitted - Responding to reasons for administration of sedatives on up to 3 occasions (After diagnosis/ before or at the start of labour, around the time of the birth, after the birth)
  4. [1]There were two missing cases in the accompaniment variable
  5. [2]Other reasons for not being permitting accompaniment during the birth included: Under anaesthesia, surgery, emergency caesarean (22.1%), Respondent wanted to be alone or her partner didn’t want to enter (8.9%) and Other: partner didn’t arrive on time, single mother, etc. (8.5%)
  6. [3]Only respondents who didn’t receive an explanation on all the first occasion they were administered sedatives