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Table 5 Results related to medical/technical aspects of care, cross-tabulated by type of hospital

From: Care quality following intrauterine death in Spanish hospitals: results from an online survey

   Type of hospital  
Total (n = 796) Public (n = 593) Private (n = 203)   
n (%) n (%) n (%) χ2, p* Phi
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal (total) 667 (83.8) 521 (87.9) 146 (71.9) 28.29, p < 0.001 −.189
  Vaginal - induced 578 (72.6) 449 (86.2) 129 (88.4) .46, p = 0.494
  Vaginal - instrumentalised 113 (16.9) 73 (14.0) 40 (27.4) 14.52, p < 0.001 .148
  Vaginal - natural 76 (11.4) 63 (12.1) 13 (8.9) 1.14, p = 0.284
 Caesarean section (total) 118 (14.8) 67 (11.3) 51 (25.1) 22.89, p < 0.001 .170
  Planned caesarean 22 (2.8) 10 (1.7) 12 (5.9) 10.04, p = 0.002 .112
  Emergency caesarean 80 (10.1) 49 (8.3) 31 (15.3) 8.21, p = 0.004 .102
  Due to failed induction 16 (2.0) 8 (1.3) 8 (3.9) 5.16, p = 0.023 .080
 Other 9 (1.1) 3 (0.5) 6 (3.0) **   
 Not stated 2 (0.3) 2 (0.3) 0 (0.0) **   
Mode of delivery ≥26 weeks gestation (n = 475) (n = 357) (n = 118)    
 Vaginal 364 (76.6) 296 (82.9) 68 (57.6) 31.61, p < 0.001 −.358
 Caesarean section 109 (22.9) 60 (16.8) 49 (41.5) 30.64, p < 0.001 .254
Accompaniment during the birth
 Accompanied during the birth (total)[1] 561 (70.7) 436 (73.6) 125 (61.9) 10.05, p = 0.002 −.113
  Vaginal births 534 (80.2) 427 (82.0) 107 (73.8) 4.76, p = 0.029 −.085
  Caesarean births 25 (21.2) 9 (13.4) 16 (31.4) 5.58, p = 0.018 .217
 Partner/other not allowed to accompany (total)[2] 138 (17.3) 94 (15.9) 44 (21.7) 3.58, p = 0.059
  Vaginal births 80 (12.0) 57 (10.9) 23 (15.8) 2.50, p = 0.114
  Caesarean births 54 (45.8) 34 (50.7) 20 (39.2) 1.55, p = 0.213
Administration of sedatives/ benzodiazepines***
 Administered at least once 382 (48.0) 274 (46.2) 108 (53.2) 2.96, p = 0.085
 Administered more than once 61 (7.7) 41 (6.9) 20 (9.9) 1.84, p = 0.174
Reason for taking sedatives
 Patient asked for something to help her relax 130 (34.0) 96 (35.0) 34 (31.5) .436, p = 0.509
 HP told patient to take something to relax 203 (53.1) 143 (52.2) 60 (55.6) .352, p = 0.553
 HP administered without consulting 68 (17.8) 49 (17.9) 19 (17.6) .004, p = 0.947
 Effects of sedatives explained at 1st admin. (partially or fully)[3] 167 (43.8) 117 (42.7) 50 (46.7) .507, p = 0.476
Pathology studies conducted
 At least one pathology study/test conducted 667 (85.5) 519 (89.2) 148 (74.7) 24.82, p < 0.001 .178
 General autopsy 479 (61.4) 387 (66.5) 92 (46.5) 25.01, p < 0.001 −.179
  Stillbirths 396 (66.8) 314 (71.5) 82 (53.2) 17.17, p < 0.001 −.170
  Termination of pregnancy 83 (44.4) 73 (51.0) 10 (22.7) 10.93, p = 0.001 −.242
 Placental autopsy 301 (38.6) 230 (39.5) 71 (35.9) .835, p = 0.361
 Not stated 16 (2.0) 11 (1.9) 5 (2.5) .284, p = 0.284
  1. *Pearson’s Chi-squared, significance level set at p <0.05
  2. **Chi-squared not calculated due to minimum requirement of 5 cases per cell
  3. ***Multiple responses permitted - Responding to reasons for administration of sedatives on up to 3 occasions (After diagnosis/ before or at the start of labour, around the time of the birth, after the birth)
  4. [1]There were two missing cases in the accompaniment variable
  5. [2]Other reasons for not being permitting accompaniment during the birth included: Under anaesthesia, surgery, emergency caesarean (22.1%), Respondent wanted to be alone or her partner didn’t want to enter (8.9%) and Other: partner didn’t arrive on time, single mother, etc. (8.5%)
  6. [3]Only respondents who didn’t receive an explanation on all the first occasion they were administered sedatives