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Table 2 Results by intervention type for primary and key secondary outcomes in systematic review of the use of probiotics and/or prebiotics during pregnancy

From: Pregnancy outcomes in women taking probiotics or prebiotics: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcome Intervention Studies N I2 RR/MD (95% CI)
PTB < 34 Probiotics 5 1017 0% RR 1.03 (0.29–3.64)
  Prebiotics 0
PTB < 37 Probiotics 11 2484 0% RR 1.08 (0.71–1.63)
  Prebiotics 1 116 RR 1.43 (0.06–34.17)
Gestational age (weeks) Probiotics 8 1133 0% MD 0.07 weeks (-0.09–0.23)
  Prebiotics 1 115 MD -0.37 weeks (-1.14–0.40)
Birth weight (grams) Probiotics 10 1608 0% MD 10.66 g (-35.85–57.18)
  Prebiotics 1 116 MD -63.95 g (-262.02–134.12)
SGA Probiotics 3 318 50% RR 1.03 (0.35–3.06)
  Prebiotics 0
LGA Probiotics 3 316 0% RR 0.96 (0.47–1.94)
  Prebiotics 0
GDM Probiotics 2 355 0% RR 1.25 (0.61–2.56)
  Prebiotics 0
PPROM Probiotics 2 366 0% RR 1.37 (0.63–2.99)
  Prebiotics 0
  1. Abbreviations: GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, LGA large for gestational age, N Number of women in the meta-analysis, PPROM Preterm premature rupture of the membranes, PTB preterm birth; SGA Small for gestational age
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