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Table 2 Descriptive and network characteristics of women with most recent childbirth, and by place of birth

From: Structural and functional network characteristics and facility delivery among women in rural Ghana

  Total sample (783) Homebirth Facility birth
Descriptive characteristics [Percent] Percent (N)/ Mean (95% CI) Percent (N)/ Mean (95% CI) Percent (N)/ Mean (95% CI)
Age
  < 19 years
 19–24 years
 25–34 years
 35–49 years
37 (4.7)
216 (27.6)
391 (49.9)
139 (17.8)
9 (2.8)
70 (21.6)
181 (55.9)
64 (19.8)
28 (6.1)
146 (31.8)
210 (45.8)
75 (16.3)***
Education
 None
 Primary
 Secondary
369 (47.3)
208 (26.6)
206 (26.3)
223 (68.8)
68 (21.0)
33 (10.2)
146 (31.8)
140 (30.5)
173 (37.7)****
Employment
 Paid
 Self employed
 Unpaid/ unemployed/other
36 (4.6)
240 (30.7)
507 (64.8)
7 (2.2)
55 (17.0)
262 (80.9)
29 (6.3)
185 (40.3)
245 (53.4)****
Household wealth
 Richest
 Medium
 Poorest
133 (17.0)
247 (31.6)
403 (51.5)
21 (6.5)
88 (27.2)
215 (66.4)
112 (24.4)
159 (34.6)
188 (41.0)****
Religion
 Christian
 Moslem
 None/traditional/Other
461 (58.9)
215 (27.5)
107 (13.7)
151 (46.6)
95 (29.3)
78 (24.1)
310 (67.5)
120 (26.1)
29 (6.3)****
Marital status
 Married/living together
 Not currently in union
681 (87.0)
102 (13.0)
304 (93.8)
20 (6.2)
377 (82.1)
82 (17.9)****
Ethnicity
 Akan
 Mole-Dadgbani
 Grum
 Other
337 (43.0)
193 (24.7)
106 (13.5)
147 (18.8)
72 (22.2)
89 (27.5)
69 (21.3)
94 (29.0)
265 (57.7)
104 (22.6)
37 (8.1)
53 (11.6)****
Parity
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6 +
185 (23.6)
143 (18.3)
139 (17.8)
92 (11.8)
76 (9.7)
148 (18.9)
47 (14.5)
46 (14.2)
59 (18.2)
47 (14.5)
37 (11.4)
88 (27.2)
138 (30.1)
97 (21.1)
80 (17.4)
45 (9.8)
39 (8.5)
60 (13.1)****
Region
 Central
 Northern
380 (48.5)
403 (51.5)
87 (26.9)
237 (73.1)
293 (63.8)
166 (36.2)****
Who usually makes decision about your health care
 Husband alone
 Respondent alone/ both partners
 Other
457 (67.1)
185 (27.2)
185 (5.7)
235 (77.3)
50 (16.5)
19 (6.2)
222 (58.9)
135 (35.8)
20 (5.3)****
Network structure [Mean]
Network size 3.66 (3.36–3.96) 3.87 (3.52–4.22) 3.51 (3.16–3.85)
Number of network members that respondent interacted with 2.81 (2.56–3.07) 3.13 (2.82–3.44) 2.59 (2.34–2.85)
Number of network members that respondent lived near 1.59 (1.43–1.76) 1.69 (1.47–1.91) 1.52 (1.33–1.72)
Social influence [Percent]
Close relatives approval of facility-based pregnancy and delivery care
 Lower approval
 Higher approval
153 (19.7)
625 (80.3)
89 (27.7)
232 (72.3)
64 (14.0)
393 (86.0)****
Close friends approval of facility-based pregnancy and delivery care
 Lower approval
 Higher approval
285 (36.6)
493 (63.4)
109 (33.8)
214 (66.2)
176 (38.7)
279 (61.3)
Number of women respondent know that have gone to a facility for pregnancy-related care
 Fewer number
 Some
 Greater number
77 (9.9)
204 (26.3)
495 (63.8)
55 (17.1)
102 (31.7)
165 (51.2)
22 (4.9)
102 (22.5)
330 (72.7)****
Instrumental support [Percent]
There was someone to help with daily chores
 Less of the time
 More of the time
321 (41.0)
462 (59.0)
147 (45.4)
177 (54.6)
174 (37.9)
285 (62.1)*
There was someone to help seek health care
 Less of the time
 More of the time
264 (33.8)
518 (66.2)
131 (40.6)
192 (59.4)
133 (29.0)
326 (71.0)**
Emotional support [Percent]
There was someone to listen, if respondent had any problems
 Less of the time
 More of the time
295 (37.7)
487 (62.3)
120 (37.0)
204 (63.0)
175 (38.2)
283 (61.8)
There was someone who could understand and support respondent through pregnancy
 Less of the time
 More of the time
298 (38.1)
485 (61.9)
131 (40.4)
193 (59.6)
167 (36.4)
292 (63.6)
Informational support [Percent]
There was someone to give respondent advice
 Less of the time
 More of the time
277 (35.4)
506 (64.6)
122 (37.7)
202 (62.3)
155 (33.8)
304 (66.2)
There was someone respondent could turn to for suggestions on dealing with concerns
 Less of the time
 More of the time
299 (38.2)
484 (61.8)
131 (40.4)
193 (59.6)
168 (36.6)
291 (63.4)
  1. Sample size is slightly smaller for some variables that had missing data. Significance tests compare homebirth with facility birth; *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001; ****p ≤ 0.0001