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Table 4 Underlying causes of severe maternal outcomes (near-miss and maternal deaths) and their associated CFR

From: Severe maternal outcomes and quality of care at district hospitals in Rwanda– a multicentre prospective case-control study

Direct causes MNM (n = 201) MD (n = 13) Total CFR
 Severe postpartum haemorrhage 46 (22.9%) 4 (30.8%) 50 (23.4%) 8.0% (0.5–15.5)
 Ruptured uterus 46 (22.9%) 3 (23.1%) 49 (22.9%) 6.1% (0.6–12.8)
 Severe complications of abortion 35 (17.4%) 1 (7.7%) 36 (16.8%) 2.9% (2.6–8.4)
 Hypertensive disorders 17 (8.5%) 2 (15.4%) 19 (8.9%) 10.5% (3.3–24.3)
 Puerperal sepsis 15 (7.5%) 0 15 (7%) 0
 Abnormal/ectopic pregnancy 3 (1.5%) 0 3 (1.4%) 0
 Severe intrapartum haemorrhage 1 (0.5%) 1 (7.7%) 2 (0.9%) 50%
 Antepartum haemorrhage 1 (0.5%) 0 1 (0.5%) 0
Indirect causes
 Malaria (laboratory confirmed) 27 (13.4%) 2 (15.4%) 29 (13.6%) 6.9% (2.3–16.1)
 Unknown causes of anaemia requiring blood transfusion 10 (5.0%) 0 10 (4.7) 0