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Table 2 Maternal outcome indicators in four district hospitals in Rwanda

From: Severe maternal outcomes and quality of care at district hospitals in Rwanda– a multicentre prospective case-control study

Live birthsa 5577
Severe maternal outcome indicators
 Women with maternal near-miss (MNM)b 201
 Maternal death (MD)c 13
 Women with severe maternal outcomes (SMO)d 214
Overall near-miss indicators
 Severe maternal outcome ratio (SMOR) per 1000 live birthse 38.4 (33.4–43.4)
 Maternal near-miss incidence ratio per 1000 live birthsf 36.0 (31.1–40.9)
 Maternal near-miss mortality ratiog 15.5
 Maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live birthsh 233 (110–360)
 Mortality index (%)i 6.1 (2.9–9.3)
Hospital access indicators
 Women with SMO at arrival or within 12 h of hospital arrivalk 188
 Proportion of SMO at arrival or within 12 h of hospital arrival (%)l 87.9 (83.5–92.3)
 Women with SMO at arrival or within 12 h of hospital arrival and referred from HCm 177
 Proportion of SMO at arrival or within 12 h of hospital arrival referred from HC (%)n 94.1 (90.7–97.5)
 SMO at arrival or within 12 h of hospital arrival who diedo 9
 SMO at arrival or within 12 h of hospital arrival mortality index (%)p 4.8 (1.7–7.9)
Intra hospital care indicators
 Women who developed SMO more than 12 h after hospital arrival (intra hospital SMO)q 26
 Intra hospital SMO rate (per 1000 live births)r 4.7 (2.9–6.5)
 Women with SMO developed after 12 h of hospital arrival who dieds 4
 Intra hospital mortality index (%)t 15.4 (1.5–29.3)
  1. aLive birth (LB): the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, which, after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life. Each product of such a birth is considered live born
  2. bNumber of women with maternal near-miss
  3. cNumber of maternal death
  4. dWomen with severe maternal outcome (SMO) the sum of maternal near-miss and maternal deaths. d = (b + c)
  5. eSevere maternal outcome ratio (SMOR): the number of women with life threatening conditions per 1000 live births. e = (d/a)*1000LB
  6. fMNM incidence ratio: the number of maternal near-miss cases per 1000 live births. [MNM IR = MNM/LB]. f = (b/a)*1000LB
  7. gMaternal near-miss mortality ratio: the proportion between maternal near-miss cases and maternal deaths. g = (b/c)
  8. hMaternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births
  9. iCase fatality rate: the number of maternal deaths divided by the number of women with SMO, expressed as a percentage. i = (c/d)*100
  10. kNumber of women with SMO at arrival or within 12 h of hospital arrival
  11. lProportion SMO at arrival or within 12 h among all SMO: the number of SMO who are ill on arrival or within 12 h divided by the total number of SMO. l = (k/d)*100
  12. mNumber of women with SMO at arrival or within 12 h of hospital arrival and referred from HC
  13. nProportion of SMO at arrival or within 12 h coming from other health facilities: the number of SMO who are ill on arrival or within 12 h and coming from a health center divided by the total number of SMO at arrival or within 12 h. n = (m/k)*100
  14. oNumber of SMO at arrival or within 12 h of hospital arrival who died
  15. pSMO at arrival or within 12 h mortality index: the maternal deaths within 12 h after arrival divided by the number of women with SMO who were ill on arrival or within 12 h, expressed as percentage. p = (o/k)*100
  16. qNumber of Women who developed SMO more than 12 h after hospital arrival (intra hospital SMO)
  17. r Intra hospital SMO rate (per 1000 live births): the number of women with SMO who developed these life-threatening conditions after 12 h in the hospital per 1000 live births. r = (q/a)*1000LB
  18. sNumber of women who developed SMO more than 12 h after hospital arrival
  19. tIntra hospital mortality index: the number of maternal deaths who were not ill on arrival or within 12 h, divided by the number of women with SMO who were not ill on arrival or within 12 h, expressed as a percentage. t = (s/q)*100