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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the SMO cases and controls

From: Severe maternal outcomes and quality of care at district hospitals in Rwanda– a multicentre prospective case-control study

  Cases (%) Controls (%) Total Chi-square P-value
Age
  < 20 16 (7.5) 15 (3.5) 31 (4.8) 22.02 0.000
 20–35 145 (67.8) 359 (83.9) 504 (78.5)
  > 35 53 (28.4) 54 (12.6) 107 (16.7)
Marital statusa (N = 630)
 Married 182 (85.0) 402 (94.4) 584 (91.3) 15.49 0.000
 Unmarried 32 (15.0) 24 (5.6) 56 (8.8)
Professiona (N = 641)
 Farmer 200 (93.5) 423 (99.1) 623 (97.2) 17.92 0.000
 Other profession 5 (2.3) 3 (0.7) 8 (1.2)
 Unemployed 9 (4.2) 1 (0.2) 10 (1.6)
Education levela (N = 637)
 Never been to school 15 (7.1) 21 (4.9) 36 (5.7) 7.36 0.25
 Primary education 174 (82.5) 327 (76.8) 501 (78.6)
 Secondary and higher 22 (10.4) 78 (18.3) 100 (15.7)
Medical Insurance
 No 13 (6.1) 38 (8.9) 51(7.9) 1.53 0.216
 Yes 201 (93.9) 390 (91.1) 591 (92.1)
Clinical characteristics
 Parity
  0 60 (28.0) 179 (41.8) 239 (37.2) 15.18 0.002
  1 41 (19.2) 78 (18.2) 119 (18.5)
  2 to 4 84 (39.3) 140 (32.7) 224 (34.9)
   ≥ 5 29 (13.6) 31 (7.2) 60 (9.3)
 Gravidity
  1 65 (30.4) 181 (42.3) 246 (38.3) 13.25 0.001
  2 to 4 105 (49.1) 197 (46.0) 302 (47.0)
   ≥ 5 44 (20.6) 50 (11.7) 94 (14.6)
 Previous C/S
  No 152 (71.0) 325 (75.9) 477 (74.3) 1.80 0.18
  Yes 62 (29.0) 103 (24.1) 165 (25.7)
 Previous abortion
  No 204 (95.3) 401 (93.7) 605 (94.2) 0.70 0.402
  Yes 10 (4.7) 27 (6.3) 37 (5.8)
 ANCa (N = 626)
  0 55 (27.4) 44 (10.4) 99 (15.8) 31.91 0.000
  1 27 (13.4) 50 (11.8) 77 (12.3)
  2 to 3 95 (47.3) 263 (61.9) 358 (57.2)
   ≥ 4 24 (11.9) 68 (16) 92 (14.7)
 Gestational agea (N = 594)
   < 24 weeks 40 (21.7) 1 (0.2) 41 (6.9) 179.67 0.000
  24–36 weeks 34 (18.5) 1 (0.2) 35 (5.9)
   ≥ 37 weeks 110 (59.8) 408 (99.5) 518 (87.2)
Outcomes
 Baby’s condition at birtha (N = 568)
  Alive (501) 76 (53.9) 425 (99.5) 501 (88.2) 212.13 0.000
  Still birth (67) 65 (46.1) 2 (0.5) 67 (11.8)
 Mode of deliverya (N = 532)
  Vaginal delivery (n = 274) 44 (45.8) 230 (53.9) 274 (52.4) 2.03 0.155
  Caesarean section (n = 249) 52 (54.2) 197 (46.1) 249 (47.6)
 Length of hospital staya (N = 641)
  0 to 1 day 17 (8) 140 (32.7) 157 (24.5) 104.97 0.000
  2 to 3 days 47 (22.1) 152 (35.5) 199 (31.0)
  4 to 7 days 126 (59.2) 132 (30.8) 258 (40.2)
  More than 7 days 23 (10.8) 4 (0.9) 27 (4.2)
  1. a Missing information for some cases