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Table 3 Summary of the comment analysis on free text responses

From: Stillbirth is associated with perceived alterations in fetal activity – findings from an international case control study

Description of how participants who responded “yes” to keeping track, kept track of fetal movements Number of times used
Cases n = 70
n (%)*
Number of times used
Controls n = 229
n (%)*
Exemplar quotes
Kick Counting 39 (55.7) 149 (65.1) • I did kick counts every day at about 8 am and 7:30 pm (Case).
• Kick counts in the morning or evening. Timed how long it took to get to 10 movements (Control).
General awareness 18 (25.7) 53 (23.1) • I just made mental note of it each day and I got use to her movements throughout the day and night (Case).
• Kept a mental record of movements and discussed them with husband but did not write anything down (Control).
‘Stimulating’ the baby
Drinking and eating (water/juice/sugary), music
10 (8.5) 25 (10.9) • I did not had any method to keep track of baby movement just sit after eating and listening music or drink something like that will make him move (Case).
• Just made sure I remembered when I felt her move and if I felt her throughout the day. If I didn’t/couldn’t remember movement, I’d sit still and drink some juice to see if she would wake for me (Control).
Used an i-device/app 4 (5.7) 24 (10.5) • Baby kick app on iPhone (Case).
• Kick counting app. Count ten kicks, records time between kicks and overall time to get to ten kicks (Control).
Active baby/Constant movement 5 (7.1) 3 (1.3) • I felt her move constantly (Case).
• I never had to do kick counts because I felt my baby move so much (Control).
Free text response to “Once you were aware of your baby’s usual pattern of movement, was there any time your baby’s movements were unusual?” Number of times used
Cases n = 75
n (%)
Number of times used
Controls n = 118
n (%)
Exemplar quotes
Slowing down 42 (56) 13 (11) • In the last couple of weeks of my pregnancy, I noticed the movements did slow down (Case).
• In the last month before losing the baby, I felt gradual reduced movement (Case).
• Slowed down at end of pregnancy (Control).
One or two quiet days 0 (0) 42 (35.6) • One day I was not feeling well – baby moved less than normal. I went in for a non-stress test and all checked out fine (Control).
• Only once and was checked by midwife (Control).
Time of day (Night time, morning, evening) 20 (26.6)
(less active)
14 (11.9)
(more active)
• Sometimes he wouldn’t be as active as early in the morning (Case).
• The baby had specific times when she was more active (9 pm through 1 am)(Control).
Free text response to “During the last two weeks of this pregnancy, did the STRENGTH of your baby’s movements…” Number of times used
Cases n = 20
n (%)
Number of times used
Controls n = 55
n (%)
Exemplar quotes
Less strong 8 (40) 7 (12.7) • Slow, weak movements (Case).
• Less strong in last 4 days (Case).
• Less frequent and less intensity (Control).
Stronger/harder 1 (5) 22 (40) • She was slower, but stronger (Case).
• Her movements are gradually getting stronger (Control).
• His kicks have gotten a little more power behind them recently (Control).
Roll/ing 4 (20) 2 (3.6) • More of a rolling rather than punching and kicking (Case).
• She seemed to roll around more during the last week (Case).
• Movements are more rolls and pushes now rather than kicks and punches (Control).
Pressure/pushing/poking 0 (0) 5 (9) • More pressure to his movements (Control).
• I can feel more ‘poking’ as the baby flexes more (Control).
• More pressure when poking feet/knees out (Control).
• Less kicking, more pushing (Control).
Free text response to “During the last two weeks of this pregnancy, did the FREQUENCY of your baby’s movements....” Number of times used
Cases n = 23
n (%)*
Number of times used
Controls n = 38
n (%)*
Exemplar quotes
Decrease 18 (78) 11 (28.9) • Noticeable decrease in movements (Case).
• Slightly fewer movements at 40 weeks (Control).
More/increased 0 (0) 10 (26.3) • Lots of movement 1 and 2 days prior to birth (Control).
• I am feeling her more due to her size (Control).
• Able to feel the kicks more often, probably because they are stronger (Control).
Very Active 0 (0) 3 (7.9) • Very active baby facing out so I’d get lots of kicks (Control).
Free text response to “During the last two weeks of this pregnancy, did you notice any time that your baby was more vigorous than usual?” Number of times used Cases n = 31
n (%)
Number of times used
Controls n = 74
n (%)
Exemplar quotes
Crazy/wild 15 (48) 1 (1.35) • There were a few times that I mentioned to my husband how “wild and active” our baby was. I thought he was going to jump out a couple of times (Case).
• The evening of the very last night he was totally crazy active. I was reassured because I thought he had been slow and sluggish for the last couple of weeks (Case).
• Felt almost like she was having a seizure (Case).
Vigorous at night 14 (45.2)
(Noticeably vigorous night before death)
25 (33.8)
(Normally vigorous at night)
• Always very active, last night before she passed she was extremely active (Case).
• The last night I felt him move, he was moving lots!!! More than usual. Then nothing more (Case).
• His movements tend to be stronger at the end of the day when I relax on the couch around 8 pm (Control).
The baby always seems to become most active when I lay down at night for bed (Control).
More powerful/strong/aggressive 0 (0) 11 (14.9) • More powerful movements (Control).
• When I was in the bath one night the movements were very strong and very low. It was quite an unusual feeling (Control).
• When I sit in certain positions, she became more vigorous (Control).
• A friend was feeling him move and he got really aggressive, the strongest movement I have felt him have but it was just once (Control).
  1. *Note percentages do not add to 100%