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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 980 patients who underwent ECV between October 2007 and June 2012

From: Fetal heart rate abnormalities during and after external cephalic version: Which fetuses are at risk and how are they delivered?

  Total (n = 980) CTG-abnormalities during or after ECV (n = 86) No CTG-abnormalities during or after ECV (n = 894) P-value
Maternal age (years)
 Mean, standard deviation 31.2 (4.1) 31.2 (3.7) 31.3 (4.2) 0.9
 Range 17–46 21–40 17–46  
Parity
 Primiparous 626 (64%) 59 (69%) 567 (63%) 0.3
 Multiparous 354 (36%) 27 (31%) 327 (37%)  
Gestational age at ECV (weeks and days)
 Median 35 + 6 36 + 0 35 + 6 0.4
 Range 34 + 0–41 + 5 34 + 0–38 + 0 34 + 2–41 + 5  
Type of breech
 Non-Frank 323 (34%) 26 (30%) 297 (34%) 0.5
 Frank 630 (66%) 60 (70%) 570 (66%)  
Estimated Fetal Weight (EFW in grams)
 Mean, standard deviation 2591 (316) 2505 (276) 2599 (319) 0.009
 Range 1700–4000 1880–3526 1700–4000  
Fundal height (centimeters)
 Mean, standard deviation 32.8 (1.7) 32.2 (1.2) 32.8 (1.7) 0.01
 Range 26–40 29–35 26–40  
Engagement
 Breech above pelvic inlet 481 (50%) 35 (41%) 446 (51%) 0.08
 Breech in pelvic inlet 485 (50%) 51 (59%) 434 (49%)  
Head palpable
 No 64 (7%) 4 (5%) 60 (7%) 0.5
 Yes 912 (93%) 82 (95%) 830 (93%)  
Placenta location
 Posterior/lateral 582 (60%) 55 (65%) 527 (59%) 0.3
 Anterior 394 (40%) 30 (35%) 364 (41%)  
Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI in cm)
 > 10 392 (40%) 25 (29%) 367 (41%) 0.03
 ≤ 10 586 (60%) 61 (71%) 525 (59%)  
Duration ECV (in minutes)
 Median 2.50 4.15 2.45 < 0.001
 Range 0.15–16.05 0.30–16.05 0.15–15.45  
Number of ECV attempts
 Mean, standard deviation 2.2 (1.4) 2.3 (1.4) 2.2 (1.4) 0.5
 Range 1–7 1–6 1–7  
ECV success
 Yes 584 (60%) 55 (64%) 529 (59%) 0.4
 No 396 (40%) 31 (36%) 365 (41%)  
Delivery mode
 Spontaneous vaginal 494 (50%) 48 (56%) 446 (50%) 0.3
 Assisted vaginal and caesarean section 486 (50%) 38 (44%) 448 (50%)  
Gender newborn
 Boy 440 (45%) 40 (48%) 400 (45%) 0.6
 Girl 537 (55%) 44 (52%) 493 (55%)  
Birth weight (grams)
 Median 3322 3201 3325 0.009
 Range 1700–4705 1782–4280 1700–4705