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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies and additional sources

From: Establishing partnership with traditional birth attendants for improved maternal and newborn health: a review of factors influencing implementation

Author Study design Setting Description of intervention
Fauveau et al., 1991 [6] Pre and post intervention study BANGLADESH, rural Matlab Nurse-midwives posted in outposts of programme area. The nurse-midwives’ duties included working with CHWs and TBAs to ensure that they were called during labour.
Frankenberg et al., 2009 [4] Longitudinal panel survey INDONESIA A village midwife programme where midwives were trained and placed in poor communities far from health centres. Responsibilities included developing collaborative relationships with traditional village midwives.
Gabrysch et al., 2009 [19] Pre and post comparative study PERU, Ayacucho rural Santillana district A culturally appropriate childbirth care model developed with Quechua communities and health professionals. Key features included a rope and bench for vertical delivery position, inclusion of family and TBAs, use of the Quechua language and health professionals that were respectful of culture.
Mullany et al., 2010 [7] A pre and post intervention study (2-stage cluster-sampling surveys before and after programme implementation) MYANMAR, Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions A community-based project, collaboration to improve coverage of maternal health services in vulnerable communities. Strategy of a 3-tiered network of community-based providers: TBAs created links between community member and senior workers, HWs strengthened links between TBAs and lead health workers, and MHWs, who oversaw the work of TBAs and other HWs.
Purdin et al., 2009 [13] Programme evaluation using health information system/retrospective pre-post analysis PAKISTAN, Hangu district, Afghan refugee camp Male involvement interventions relating to safe motherhood, services established, and training provided to different community actors including TBAs to raise awareness of services and reproductive health issues.
Outreach and community input. Each refugee camp has a health committee with community representatives and health service staff that meet bi-monthly to discuss project activities and provide feedback to health workers on health services provided.
Basic emergency obstetric care facilities, community-based education provided to key community representatives including CHWs, female health workers, women of reproductive age, men, health committee members (all men), teachers, religious leaders and private practitioners.
Ronsmans et al., 2001 [5] A pre and post intervention study, including mixed methods INDONESIA, three districts in South Kalimantan A midwife placed in each village and at least one doctor with obstetric skills in each district. Financial access was facilitated for the poor. Village midwives were encouraged to work side by side with TBAs. TBAs supported to refer women with a complication and to work in collaboration with village midwives.
Additional sources
Andemichael et al., 2009 [25] Published article – rapid assessment ERITREA Improve access to services: addressing geographical barriers.
New role for TBA: accompanying women to health services.
Braine, T. 2008 [11] Published article - opinion MEXICO New role for TBA: Doctor + TBA partnership. Cultural adaptation of institutional childbirth.
Davis-Floyd, R. 2001 [30] Published article – qualitative research MEXICO Improve access to services: addressing geographical barriers.
New role for TBA: midwife + TBA partnership.
Fonseca-Becker et al., 2004 [27] Published (online) report GUATEMALA New roles for TBA as a key component of newly established health committee.
Recognises TBAs importance as a (culturally acceptable) bridge between pregnant women and the health system. TBAs incorporated into activities in health facilities as part of MNH. TBA giving emotional support and coaching during labour, passing instruments to SBA and acting as interpreter.
Koblinsky et al., 1999 [28] Published article – review paper MULTIPLE COUNTRIES Improve access to services: addressing geographical and financial barriers.
New role for TBA: support at childbirth with health workers.
Murigi, S.F. 2010 [26] Newspaper article UGANDA TBAs prohibited for childbirth.
New role for TBA: community advocacy and accompanying women to health services
Onuki, D. 2002 [29] Published article - opinion BOLIVIA New role for TBA: paid to refer pregnant women to health services.
Cultural adaptation of institutional childbirth.
Ministry of Health, Myanmar 2010 Personal communication MYANMAR Improve access to services: addressing geographical barriers.
New roles for TBA: community advocacy; health services + TBA partnership.
Ministry of Health, Nigeria, 2010 Unpublished concept note NIGERIA New role for TBA: community advocacy, accompanying women to services, support for women during labour and childbirth, paid to refer or accompany women to health services, provide a link between women and families and health services.
Ministry of Health, Southern Sudan, 2009 Unpublished report SOUTH SUDAN New role for TBA: accompany women to health services, financial incentives to TBAs, midwife + TBA partnership.
Save the Children, 2008 Unpublished report AFGHANISTAN Human resources development and deployment
Policies to increase access to services, quality of the services, community participation and midwife + TBA partnership
UNICEF Indonesia, 2010 [21] Published (online) report INDONESIA New role for TBA: midwife + TBA partnership.
Weber, M. 2010 Innovation ‘letter to a friend’ (‘surat dari sahabat’). Also described in reference [21] INDONESIA New role for TBA: midwife + TBA partnership. Community advocacy.
World Bank, 2010 [22] Published (online) report INDONESIA Human resources development and deployment
Improve access to services: addressing geographical and financial barriers.
New role for TBA: midwife + TBA partnership.