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Table 1 Participant baseline sociodemographic factors

From: Randomized controlled pilot of a group antenatal care model and the sociodemographic factors associated with pregnancy-related empowerment in sub-Saharan Africa

  Full sample  (n = 218) Malawi (n = 112) Tanzania (n = 106)
   Individual ANC (n = 58) Group ANC (n = 54) Individual ANC (n = 50) Group ANC (n = 56)
  n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Age
 < 20 29 (13.5) 14 (24.6) 7 (13.2) 2 (4.1) 6 (10.9)
 20 – 34 152 (71.0) 39 (68.4) 37 (69.8) 36 (73.5) 40 (72.7)
 35 + 33 (15.4) 4 (7.0) 9 (17.0) 11 (22.4) 9 (16.4)
Gravidity
 Primigravid 67 (31.2) 24 (41.4) 10 (18.9) 16 (32.6) 17 (30.9)
 Multigravid 148 (68.8) 34 (58.6) 43 (81.1) 33 (67.3) 38 (69.1)
Relationship
 Partner 197 (91.6) 57 (98.3) 52 (98.1) 45 (91.8) 43 (78.2)
 Single 18 (8.4) 1 (1.7) 1 (1.9) 4 (8.2) 12 (21.8)
Religion
 Christian 164 (76.3) 57 (98.3) 53 (100.0) 27 (55.1) 27 (49.1)
 Muslim 51 (23.7) 1 (1.72) 0 (0.0) 22 (44.9) 28 (50.9)
Education
 Less than primary 75 (34.9) 37 (63.8) 31 (58.5) 2 (4.1) 5 (9.1)
 Primary 86 (40.0) 18 (31.0) 19 (35.8) 26 (53.1) 23 (41.8)
 More than primary 54 (25.1) 3 (5.2) 3 (5.7) 21 (42.9) 27 (49.1)
Occupation
 Farmer 118 (54.9) 57 (98.3) 51 (96.2) 4 (8.2) 6 (10.9)
 Other 97 (45.1) 1 (1.7) 2 (3.8) 45 (91.8) 49 (89.1)
Food secure
 Yes 153 (72.5) 39 (67.2) 33 (62.3) 36 (80.0) 45 (81.8)
 No 58 (27.5) 19 (32.8) 20 (37.7) 9 (20.0) 10 (18.2)
  \( \overline{\mathrm{x}} \) (SD) \( \overline{\mathrm{x}} \) (SD) \( \overline{\mathrm{x}} \) (SD) \( \overline{\mathrm{x}} \) (SD) \( \overline{\mathrm{x}} \) (SD)
Assets (0–10) 3.8 (2.1) 2.5 (1.2) 2.5 (1.3) 5.4 (1.7) 5.0 (2.0)