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Table 2 Birth outcomes following ECV, by presentation at delivery (N = 3382)

From: Uptake of external cephalic version for term breech presentation: an Australian population study, 2002–2012

Outcome Successful ECV (Cephalic at birth)
n = 1643
n (col%)
Unsuccessful ECV (Breech at birth)
n = 1739
n (col%)
Test of difference between groups
Test statistic, p-value
Mode of delivery    X2 (2)=1757.48, p < 0.01
 Vaginal birth 1217 (74.1) 76 (4.4)
 Caesarean section with labour 109 (6.6) 241 (13.9)
 Caesarean section, no labour 317 (19.3) 1422 (81.8)
Gestational age at birth    X2 (5)=697.74, p < 0.01
 36 weeks None 6 (0.4)
 37 weeks 62 (3.8) 74 (4.3)
 38 weeks 188 (11.4) 450 (25.9)
 39 weeks 465 (28.3) 953 (54.8)
 40 weeks 514 (31.3) 206 (11.9)
  ≥ 41 weeks 414 (25.2) 50 (2.9)
Perinatal death 8 (0.5) x (0.2) Fisher’s exact, p = 0.14
Apgar < 4 at 1 min 46 (2.8) 39 (2.2) X2 (1)=1.07, p = 0.30
Apgar < 7 at 5 min 30 (1.8) 25 (1.4) X2 (1)=0.80, p = 0.37
NICU/SCN admission 138 (8.4) 116 (6.7) X2 (1)=3.63, p = 0.06
  1. Note: Cell sizes <5 have been censored