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Table 3 Relationship between maternal education and selected neonatal outcomes according to maternal birthplace. Italy, Lombardy Region, 2005–2010

From: Mother’s education and the risk of several neonatal outcomes: an evidence from an Italian population-based study

  Preterm birth Low birth weight Small for Gestational Age Low Apgar score Severe congenital Anomalies Cerebral distress Respiratory distress
OR b (95% CI) OR b (95% CI) OR b (95% CI) OR b (95% CI) OR b (95% CI) OR b (95% CI) OR b (95% CI)
  Italian-born mothers
Education a
 Low 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Intermediate 0.88 (0.85–0.92) 0.86 (0.82–0.89) 0.88 (0.85–0.92) 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.99 (0.83–1.19) 0.90 (0.85–0.94)
 High 0.79 (0.76 to 0.84) 0.77 (0.73 to 0.81) 0.82 (0.79 to 0.85) 0.98 (0.88–1.10) 1.06 (0.99–1.12) 0.85 (0.68–1.08) 0.84 (0.80–0.88)
 p-trend b <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.3129 0.0997 0.6704 <0.0001
  Foreign-born mothers
Education a
 Low 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Intermediate 0.94 (0.88–1.01) 0.90 (0.84–0.97) 0.88 (0.83–0.94) 0.97 (0.83–1.14) 0.88 (0.82–0.94) 1.00 (0.77–1.31) 0.92 (0.86–0.99)
 High 0.84 (0.77–0.92) 0.78 (0.71–0.87) 0.84 (0.77–0.92) 0.81 (0.61–1.07) 0.90 (0.82–0.99) 0.78 (0.52–1.16) 0.81 (0.73–0.90)
 p-trend b <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.2615 <0.0001 0.9614 <0.0001
  1. a Years of formal education completed categorized as ≤8 years (low), from 9 to 13 years (intermediate), and ≥14 years (high)
  2. b Odds ratios (and 95% confidence interval) were derived from logistic regression. Full multivariable models for each outcome included as covariates maternal traits (i.e., age at delivery, marital status, employment, parity, previous spontaneous miscarriages, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and preeclampsia) categorized as in Table 1