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Table 2 Relationship between maternal education and birthplace and selected neonatal outcomes. Italy, Lombardy Region, 2005–2010

From: Mother’s education and the risk of several neonatal outcomes: an evidence from an Italian population-based study

  Preterm birth Low birth weight Small for Gestational Age Low Apgar score Severe congenital Anomalies Cerebral distress Respiratory distress
OR b (95% CI) OR b (95% CI) OR b (95% CI) OR b (95% CI) OR b (95% CI) OR b (95% CI) OR b (95% CI)
Education a
 Low 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Intermediate 0.90 (0.87–0.94) 0.87 (0.84–0.90) 0.88 (0.86–0.91) 0.98 (0.90–1.07) 0.94 (0.91–0.98) 1.00 (0.86–1.16) 0.91 (0.87–0.94)
 High 0.81 (0.77–0.85) 0.78 (0.74–0.81) 0.82 (0.79–0.85) 0.92 (0.83–1.03) 1.02 (0.97–1.06) 0.84 (0.69–1.02) 0.84 (0.80–0.88)
 p-trend b <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0164 0.1155 0.4745 <0.0001
Birthplace
 Italian-born 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Foreign-born 1.16 (1.11–1.20) 0.98 (0.94–1.03) 0.82 (0.79–0.85) 1.18 (1.07–1.30) 1.01 (0.97–1.06) 1.17 (0.99–1.39) 1.19 (1.15–1.24)
  1. a Years of formal education completed categorized as ≤8 years (low), from 9 to 13 years (intermediate), and ≥14 years (high)
  2. b Odds ratios (and 95% confidence interval) were derived from logistic regression. Full multivariable models for each outcome included as covariates maternal traits (i.e., age at delivery, marital status, employment, parity, previous spontaneous miscarriages, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and preeclampsia) categorized as in Table 1