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Table 3 Association between vitamin D and pre-eclampsia (PE) in observational studies

From: The role of vitamin D in pre-eclampsia: a systematic review

Author, Location, Year Key Findings Results
August et al., USA, 1992 [88] ↓ 1,25OH2D in women with PE vs chronic HTN and normal women 1,25 OH2D levels:
PE: 37.8 +/− 15 pg/ml chronic HTN: 75 +/− 15 pg/ml (p < 0.05); normal women: 65 +/− 10 pg/ml (p < 0.05)
Fernandez- Alonzo et al., Spain, 2012 [97] ↔ PE and 25(OH)D levels 25(OH)D: <49.9 nmol/L: 28.6% (2/7 women); 49.9–74.9 nmol/L: 42.9% (3/7 women); ≥ 74.9 nmol/L: 28.6% (2/7 women) (p = 0.91)
Pena HR, et al. Brazil 2015 [83] ↑ frequency of 25(OH)D deficiency <20 ng/mL in PE compared to healthy non obese controls PE: 52.1% (25 women)
Non obese controls: 14.9%
(7 women)
(P = 0.0006)
Abedi et al., Iran, 2014 [84] ↑ vitamin D deficiency (<25.0 nmol/L) in PE cases OR = 24.04
95% CI: 2.14–285.4
Achkar et al., Canada, 2015 [81] ↑ PE in women with 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L vs women with at least 50 nmol/L Adjusted OR: 2.23
95% CI: 1.29–3.83
Anderson et al., USA, 2015 [111] ↔ proportion of women with inadequate <30 ng/mL 25(OH)D levels in HTN group vs control group 73% (HTN/PE group) vs 69% (control group)
(p = 0.22)
Baker et al., 2010 [80] ↑ Severe PE in women with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L compared to levels of at least 75 nmol/L Adjusted OR: 5.41
95% CI: 2.02–14.52
(P = 0.001)
Bodnar et al., USA, 2007 [18] ↑ PE in women with 25(OH)D < 37.5 nmol/L compared to levels of >37.5 nmol/L Adjusted OR: 5.0
95% CI: 1.7–14.1
Bodnar et al., USA, 2014 [79] ↓ Severe PE in women with 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L compared to levels <50 nmol/L Adjusted RR: 0.65
95% CI: 0.43–0.98
Gidlof S, et al. Sweden, 2015 [112] ↔ 25(OH)D levels in PE and healthy controls; ↔ 25(OH)D deficiency < 50 nmol/L in PE and controls 25(OH)D: PE: 52.2 ± 20.5 nmol/L; Controls: 48.6 ± 20.5 nmol/ L (p = 0.3); 25(OH)D deficiency: PE: 38%, Controls: 51.7% (p = 0.1)
Halhali, Mexico, 2004 [95] ↔ 1,25(OH)2D in women before they developed PE 1,25(OH)2D: median (interquartile range)
PE: 31 pg/mL (26–34)
NT: 29 pg/mL (24–36)
(p = 0.44)
Halhali et al., Mexico, 2007 [113] ↓ 1,25(OH)2D levels in women with PE vs controls 25(OH)D: PE: 486.7 ± 167.2 nmol/L Controls: 731.1 ± 262.1 nmol/L (p < 0.05)
Lechtermann C, et al. Germany, 2–14 [85] ↓ 25(OH)D levels in PE in summer compared to controls, 1,25(OH)2D ↓ only in winter 25(OH)D: PE:18.2 ± 17.1; Control: 49.2 ± 29.2 ng/mL, (P < 0.001); 1,25(OH)2D: 291 ± 217 vs 612.3 ± 455 pmol/mL (P < 0.05)
Mohaghegh et al., Iran, 2015 [89] ↓ mean 25(OH)D in PE compared to pregnant controls without PE 25(OH)D:
PE: 37.9 ± 33.9 nmol/L
Controls: 58.2 ± 38.2 nmol/L
(p = 0.001)
Powe, USA, 2010 [86] ↔ women with PE and controls with 25(OH)D < 15.0 nmol/L Adjusted OR: 1.35
95% CI: 0.40 to 4.50
Robinson et al., USA, 2010 [25] ↑ EOSPE in women with maternal 25(OH)D levels <=19.6 nmol/L compared to levels >19.6 nmol/L OR: 3.60
95% CI: 1.71–7.58
(p < 0.001)
Schneuer et al., Australia, 2014 [114] ↔ PE or EOSPE and low 25(OH)D (< 25 nmol/L) Adjusted OR- all PE: 0.46
95% CI: 0.19–1.10
Adjusted OR- EOSPE: 1.40
95% CI: 0.20 to 9.89
Singla et al., India, 2015 [87] ↓ mean serum vitamin D in women with PE vs controls PE: 24.2 ± 12.4 nmol/L Controls: 36.9 ± 16.7 nmol/L;
(p = 0.0001)
Ullah et al., Bangladesh, 2013 [82] ↑ PE per 25 nmol/L decrease in 25(OH)D level Adjusted OR: 1.66
95% CI: 1.05–3.02
Wetta et al., UK, 2013 [96] ↔ between PE and 25-OH D < 30 ng/mL and <37.4 nmol/L <30 ng/mL Adjusted OR: 1.1
95% CI: 0.6–2.0
Adjusted OR: 1.4 (<37.4 nmol/L)
95% CI: 0.7–3.0
Woodham et al., USA, 2011 [15] ↓ Severe PE in women with 10 nmol/L increase in maternal 25(OH)D level Adjusted OR: 0.62
95% CI: 0.51–0.76
Xu et al., USA, 2014 [53] ↑ PE in women with vitamin D deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L) OR: 4.4
95% CI: 1.8–10.8
Yu et al., UK, 2012 [115] ↔ serum vitamin D raw values in PE and controls 25(OH)D levels: Controls: 46.8 nmol/L (27.8–70.0;)
Early PE: 32.2 nmol/L (22.7–50.4); Late PE: 39.2 nmol/L (22.1–63.0) (P = 0.231)
Alvarez-Fernandez et al., Spain, 2014 [90] ↑ PE in women with 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L compared to levels >50 nmol/L after 20 weeks of gestation OR: 4.6
95% CI:1.4–15
(P = 0.010)
Scholl et al., USA, 2013 [78] ↑ PE in women with 25(OH)D < 49.9 nmol/L and hyperparathyroidism Adjusted OR: 2.86
95% CI: 1.28–6.41
Burris et al., USA, 2014 [94] ↔ PE and 25(OH)D levels compared at each 25 nmol/L increase in 25 (OH)D Adjusted OR: 1.14
95% CI: 0.77–1.67
Haugen et al., Norway, 2000 [77] ↓ PE in women taking 10–15 mcg/d as compared with no supplements Adjusted OR: 0.73
95% CI: 0.58–0.92
Shand et al., Canada, 2010 [37] ↔ PE and 25(OH)D levels <37.5 nmol/L Adjusted OR: 0.91
95% CI: 0.31–2.62
Wei et al., Canda 2012 [60] ↔ PE and 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L Adjusted OR: 1.24
95% CI: 0.58–2.67
(p = 0.58)
Wei, Canada, 2013 [14] ↑ PE and women with ↓ PIGF levels and maternal 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L Adjusted OR: 2.97
95% CI: 1.23–7.20
Zhou, China, 2014 [116] ↔ PE and 25(OH)D levels 25(OH)D levels
Group A (n = 13): 41.4 ± 6.5 nmol/L; Group B (n = 36): 62.1 ± 7.0 nmol/L; group C (n = 25): 89.6 ± 13.0 nmol/L; (p = 0.900)