Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of Effects of increased vitamin D on the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia (PE)

From: The role of vitamin D in pre-eclampsia: a systematic review

Stage of PE Characteristic of PE ↑ Vitamin D
Stage 1 Inflammation-linked abnormal placental implantation ↓ Predisposition to pro-inflammatory response [20]
↑ Regulation of genes associated with placental invasion and normal implantation [20]
Stage 2 Vascular Endothelial dysfunction ↑ Vascular structure, elasticity and intima-media thickness
↓ Blood pressure (regulation of renin-angiotension system) [63]
↓Oxidative stress [24]
Proteinuria mediated by renal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ↑ Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by increasing VEGF gene transcription [19]