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Table 2 Overview of maternal characteristics, prevalence of analgesic use and associations between maternal characteristics and analgesic use

From: Patterns and predictors of analgesic use in pregnancy: a longitudinal drug utilization study with special focus on women with migraine

  Study sample Prevalence of analgesic use Associations between possible predictors and analgesic use
n n (% of n) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Maternal age at delivery
  < 25 165 77 (46.7) 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.99 (0.97–1.01)
 25–30 588 304 (51.7)
 31–35 768 385 (50.1)
  > 35 446 205 (46.0)
Parity
 First time mother 988 450 (45.6) 1 1
  ≥ 1 previous child 993 527 (53.1) 1.37 (1.13–1.65) 1.38(1.11–1.72)
Marital status
 Married/cohabiting 1910 947 (49.6) 1 1
 Single/divorced/separated 44 19 (43.2) 0.74 (0.40–1.39) 0.62 (0.32–1.21)
Education
 College/university 1294 609 (47.1) 1 1
 Primary/secondary school 606 332 (54.8) 1.27 (1.04–1.56) 1.07 (0.85–1.35)
Smoking at time of delivery
 No 1841 893 (48.5) 1 1
 Yes 76 52 (68.4) 2.25 (1.35–3.75) 1.89 (1.09–3.28)
Alcohol in pregnancy
 No 1866 918 (49.2) 1 1
 Yes 82 46 (56.1) 1.41 (0.87–2.28) 1.60 (0.95–2.69)
Symptoms of depression or anxiety in pregnancy
 No 1684 806 (47.9) 1 1
 Yes 291 170 (58.4) 1.41 (1.07–1.84) 0.86 (0.63–1.18)
Chronic diseases
 None 831 381 (45.8) 1 1
 1 disease 747 368 (49.3) 1.10 (0.89–1.35) 1.08 (0.86–1.35)
  ≥ 2 diseases 392 223 (56.9) 1.45 (1.12–1.88) 1.36 (1.03–1.79)
Pregnancy related diseases
 None 1777 878 (49.4) 1 1
  ≥ 1 disease 191 93 (48.7) 0.91 (0.66–1.24) 0.86 (0–62–1.21)
Somatic symptoms
 None 182 59 (32.4) 1.15 (1.10–1.20) 1.08 (1.03–1.14)
 1–2 symptoms 729 329 (45.1)
 3–4 symptoms 658 339 (51.5)
  ≥ 5 symptoms 412 250 (60.7)
Headache intensity
 Low 741 257 (34.7) 1.42 (1.33–1.50) 1.33 (1.25–1.43)
 Moderate 979 593 (60.6)
 High 183 120 (65.6)
Migraine pattern
 No history 1362 596 (43.8) 1 1
 Previous history 227 120 (52.9) 1.36 (1.01–1.83) 1.09 (0.80–1.49)
 Recent history prior to pregnancy 262 172 (65.6) 2.33 (1.74–3.13) 1.59 (1.16–2.18)
 Migraine in pregnancy 100 72 (72.0) 3.35 (2.07–5.41) 1.56 (0.93–2.63)
  1. Numbers do not add up to the total due to missing values (<5.0% for all variables). Complete cases n = 1721. Area under ROC curve = 0.69. Adj. ORs are adjusted for all covariates in the table. Significant associations are marked in bold. Maternal age, somatic symptoms and headache intensity were analyzed as continuous variables. Analgesics include paracetamol, NSAIDs, opioids and triptans, used for either headache or migraine