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Table 6 WHO MNM tool inclusions of the (corrected) life-threatening population

From: Validating the WHO maternal near miss tool: comparing high- and low-resource settings

Category Subcategory Events       
A: Disease   Netherlands (N = 1132) Tanzania (N = 77) Corrected (N = 124) Malawi (N = 86) Corrected (N = 216) P-value Corrected
  0: PPH 822 (72.6) 28 (36.4) 66 (53.2) 21 (24.4) 92 (42.6) a a
  1: Pre-eclampsia 160 (14.1) 3 (3.9) 5 (4.0) 5 (5.8) 7 (3.2) a a
  2: Eclampsia 52 (4.6) 15 (19.5) 15 (12.1) 21 (24.4) 25 (11.6) a a
  3: Sepsis 52 (4.6) 20 (26.0) 23 (18.5) 21 (24.4) 56 (25.9) a a
  4: Ruptured uterus 46 (4.1) 11 (14.3) 15 (12.1) 18 (20.9) 36 (16.7) a a
B: Intervention   Netherlands (N = 1725) Tanzania (N = 153) (N = 315) Malawi (N = 66) (N = 215)   
  0: Blood products 895 (51.9) 59 (38.6) 184 (58.4) 43 (65.2) 165 (76.7) a a
  1: Interv. radiology 96 (5.6) N/A N/A N/A N/A   
  2: Laparotomy 197 (11.4) 27 (17.6) 50 (15.9) 23 (34.8) 50 (23.3) 0.06 0.21
  3: Admission to ICU 537 (31.1) 67 (43.8) 81 (25.7) N/A N/A   
C: Organ dysfunction   Netherlands (N = 1325) Tanzania (N = 167) (N = 337) Malawi (N = 96) (N = 257)   
  0: Cardiovascular 166 (12.5) 60 (35.9) 60 (17.8) 35 (36.5) 35 (13.6) a a
  1: Respiratory 115 (8.7) 35 (21.0) 35 (10.4) 13 (13.5) 13 (5.1) a b
  2: Renal 26 (2.0) 4 (2.4) 4 (1.2) 1 (1.0) 1 (0.4) 0.51 0.16
  3: C/H 845 (63.8) 16 (9.6) 186 (55.2) 4 (4.2) 165 (64.2) a 0.70
  4: Hepatic 27 (2.0) 3 (1.8) 3 (0.9) 11 (11.5) 11 (4.3) a b
  5: Neurologic 33 (2.5) 33 (19.8) 33 (9.8) 11 (11.5) 11 (4.3) a a
  6: Hysterectomy 113 (8.5) 16 (9.6) 16 (4.7) 21 (21.9) 21 (8.2) a 0.20
  1. Data is shown in numbers (percentage)
  2. PPH postpartum haemorrhage, ICU intensive care unit, C/H = coagulation/haematological, N/A not applicable
  3. a= <0.0001, b = <0.05