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Table 5 WHO MNM tool inclusions of the total study population

From: Validating the WHO maternal near miss tool: comparing high- and low-resource settings

Category Subcategory Events
A: Disease   Netherlands (N = 2638) Tanzania (N = 139) Malawi (N = 394) P-value
  0: PPH 1635 (62.0) 66 (47.5) 110 (27.9) b
  1: Pre-eclampsia 414 (15.7) 8 (5.8) 20 (5.1) b
  2: Eclampsia 242 (9.2) 15 (10.8) 69 (17.5) b
  3: Sepsis 118 (4.5) 30 (21.6) 148 (37.6) b
  4: Ruptured uterus 229 (8.7) 20 (14.4) 47 (11.9) 0.11
B: Intervention   Netherlands (N = 3030) Tanzania (N = 334) Malawi (N = 224)  
  0: Blood products 1743 (57.5) 184 (55.1) 165 (73.7) b
  1: Int. radiology 111 (3.7) N/A N/A  
  2: Laparotomy 267 (8.8) 59 (17.7) 59 (26.3) b
  3: Admission to ICU 909 (30.0) 91 (27.2) N/A 0.78
C: Organ dysfunction   Netherlands (N = 1325) Tanzania (N = 167) Malawi (N = 96)  
  0: Cardiovascular 166 (12.5) 60 (35.9) 35 (36.5) b
  1: Respiratory 115 (8.7) 35 (21.0) 13 (13.5) b
  2: Renal 26 (2.0) 4 (2.4) 1 (1.0) 0.21
  3: C/H 845 (63.8) 16 (9.6) 4 (4.2) b
  4: Hepatic 27 (2.0) 3 (1.8) 11 (11.5) a
  5: Neurologic 33 (2.5) 33 (19.8) 11 (11.5) b
  6: Hysterectomy 113 (8.5) 16 (9.6) 21 (21.9) 0.29
  1. Data is shown in numbers (percentage)
  2. PPH postpartum haemorrhage, ICU intensive care unit, Int. radiology interventional radiology, C/H coagulation/haematological, N/A not applicable
  3. a= <0.05, b = <0.0001