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Table 3 Weighted pooled odds ratio meta-analyses on the effectiveness of GDM treatments (n = 278)

From: Healthcare interventions for the prevention and control of gestational diabetes mellitus in China: a scoping review

Complication Odds ratio (95% CI)(N studies)
  GMD Health interventions in China
  Dietary Exercise Medication Health education Psychological Combination Overall
    Western medication Chinese traditional medication ICTWMI    DE DEM DEMHP  
Gestational hypertension 0.28*** 0.53 0.39*** n/a 0.55 0.28** 0.33*** 0.28 *** 0.24 *** 0.26*** 0.29***
(0.21, 0.37) (0.14, 1.95) (0.32, 0.49) (0.12, 2.58) (0.12, 0.67) (0.19, 0.57) (0.21, 0.38) (0.16, 0.36) (0.23, 0.31) (0.27, 0.33)
(24) (1) (41) (1) (4) (5) (14) (11) (67) (168)
Polyhydramnios 0.2*** 0.13 0.36*** 0.24** 0.33* 0.21* 0.31** 0.23*** 0.31*** 0.23*** 0.27***
  (0.13, 0.30) (0.01, 1.16) (0.29, 0.44) (0.08, 0.70) (0.110.99) (0.04, 0.99) (0.15, 0.65) (0.16, 0.34) (0.22, 0.43) (0.19, 0.27) (0.24, 0.30)
(13) (1) (38) (1) (2) (2) (4) (13) (14) (56) (144)
Caesarean section 0.34*** 0.67 0.49*** 0.31*** n/a 0.10*** 0.32 0.28*** 0.36*** 0.43*** 0.39***
  (0.28, 0.41) (0.34, 1.34) (0.41, 0.58) (0.17, 0.57) (0.03, 0.38) (0.08, 1.32) (0.23, 0.35) (0.24, 0.53) (0.38, 0.48) (0.37, 0.42)
(18) (2) (33) (2) (1) (1) (16) (8) (54) (135)
Fetal distress 0.27*** 0.13 0.28*** 0.28 0.22 n/a 0.54 0.29*** 0.2*** 0.24*** 0.26***
  (0.19, 0.38) (0.01, 1.16) (0.16, 0.50) (0.06, 1.42) (0.02, 2.12) (0.18, 1.65) (0.19, 0.44) (0.11, 0.34) (0.20, 0.31) (0.22, 0.30)
(9) (1) (9) (1) (1) (2) (9) (7) (36) (75)
Premature rupture of fetal membranes 0.27*** 0.39 0.47* n/a n/a 0.27** 0.27** 0.24*** 0.47*** 0.33*** 0.33***
  (0.18, 0.40) (0.09, 1.61) (0.26, 0.86) (0.10, 0.72) (0.11, 0.67) (0.13, 0.43) (0.30, 0.74) (0.25, 0.42) (0.28, 0.39)
(6) (1) (7) (2) (2) (5) (7) (26) (56)
Preeclampsia n/a n/a 2.07 0.53 0.38 n/a 0.23 0.25*** 0.10* 0.18*** 0.34***
  (0.52, 8.31) (0.27, 1.02) (0.14, 1.03) (0.02, 2.16) (0.11, 0.58) (0.01, 0.89) (0.08, 0.40) (0.24, 0.49)
(1) (2) (1) (1) (3) (1) (4) (13)
Macrosomia 0.23*** 0.47 0.22*** 0.38** 0.21** 0.16*** 0.48* 0.20*** 0.28*** 0.25*** 0.25***
  (0.19, 0.29) (0.11, 1.99) (0.17, 0.28) (0.20, 0.76) (0.07, 0.61) (0.05, 0.47) (0.24, 0.94) (0.14, 0.30) (0.20, 0.40) (0.21, 0.30) (0.22, 0.29)
(27) (1) (35) (2) (1) (3) (3) (12) (12) (74) (170)
Premature delivery 0.25*** 0.27* 0.75 0.46* 0.37 0.42 0.58 0.20*** 0.24*** 0.26*** 0.28***
  (0.18, 0.34) (0.08, 0.86) (0.44, 1.25) (0.25, 0.84) (0.12, 1.20) (0.18, 1.03) (0.24, 1.36) (0.14, 0.29) (0.16, 0.37) (0.22, 0.31) (0.25, 0.31)
(14) (2) (7) (2) (1) (2) (3) (13) (9) (54) (107)
Asphyxia neonatorum 0.29*** 0.47 0.29*** 0.27** 0.18* 0.65 n/a 0.24*** 0.19*** 0.20*** 0.24***
  (0.20, 0.44) (0.11, 1.99) (0.18, 0.45) (0.11, 0.65) (0.04, 0.89) (0.11, 4.08) (0.10, 0.55) (0.12, 0.31) (0.15, 0.27) (0.20, 0.28)
(10) (1) (12) (2) (1) (1) (4) (9) (33) (73)
Hypoglycemia 0.18*** 0.47 0.18*** n/a n/a 0.20* 0.12 0.12*** 0.27*** 0.25*** 0.20***
  (0.11, 0.31) (0.11, 1.99) (0.13, 0.27) (0.05, 0.73) (0.01, 1.04) (0.08, 0.19) (0.16, 0.45) (0.19, 0.32) (0.17, 0.24)
(8) (1) (19) (2) (1) (8) (6) (23) (68)
Hyperbilirubinemia 0.54 n/a 0.17*** n/a 0.28 n/a n/a 0.22*** 0.20*** 0.31*** 0.23***
  (0.19, 1.52) (0.13, 0.22) (0.05, 1.53) (0.13, 0.39) (0.13, 0.30) (0.25, 0.40) (0.20, 0.27)
(2) (29) (1) (4) (8) (21) (65)
  1. *P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01; ***P ≤ 0.001