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Table 2 Prevalence of pathogens, pathogen-specific antigens and antibodies in the study population

From: Prevalence of pregnancy-relevant infections in a rural setting of Ghana

Pathogen N Serological assays Direct proof
IgM IgG IgA
Current pregnancy-relevant infections
HBV a (HBsAg pos) 174 - - - 16·7%e
Plasmodium spp.b 180 - - - + 6·1% ++ 1·7% +++ 2·8%
GBS c 180 - - - 10·6%
HCV 174 N/A 1·1% N/A -
HIV 173 0·6%* 0·6%* 0·6%* -
C. trachomatis d 177 - - - 1·7%
HSV-1/−2 174 11·5% 100% N/A 1·1%d
High susceptibility for potentially acquiring primary infection
VZV 169 n.d. 56·8% 2.4% -
T. gondii 168 1·8%** 73·2% n.d. -
Parvovirus B19 170 4·7% 80·0% N/A -
Rubella virus 172 4·7% 84·3% N/A -
Past pregnancy-relevant infections
CMV 172 0% 100% N/A -
T. pallidum 180 0%+ 2·8 / 5·0%++ N/A -
Absence of pregnancy-relevant infections
N. gonorrhoeaec 180 - - - 0
Listeria spp.c 180 - - - 0
  1. Direct pathogen proof was carried out by antigen testa, microscopy and countingb, cultivationc, or PCRd . eFive out of 23 tested HBsAg positive women (21.7%) were also HBeAg positive. -: not applicable. N/A: not available, n.d.: not done. *the assay used does not discriminate between antibody and antigen, **IgM-positive samples with high IgG avidity, +VDRL, ++FTA-ABS/TPPA