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Table 1 Comparisons of basic characteristics between groups of non-PPD and PPD

From: Risk factors for postpartum depression among Chinese women: path model analysis

Basic characteristics Non- PPD PPD Chi-square test P value
n (%) n (%)
Maternal age(year)
  < 25 42(5.1) 12(20.3) 22.342 <0.001
 25 ~ 29 378(45.9) 24(40.7)   
  ≥ 30 403(49.0) 23(39.0)   
Birth weight
  < -2SD 12(1.5) 11(18.6) 57.437 <0.001
  ≥ -2SD 811(98.5) 48(81.4)   
Educational level
  ≤ junior school 26(3.2) 2(3.4) 0.972 0.615
 Senior school 106(12.9) 5(8.5)   
  ≥ college 691(84.0) 52(88.1)   
Average monthly family income(RMB)
  ≤ 2000 23(2.8) 3(5.1) 1.890 0.389
 2001 ~ 5000 448(54.4) 35(59.3)   
  > 5000 352(42.8) 21(35.6)   
Number of family inhabitants
  ≤ 3 172(20.9) 17(28.8) 2.048 0.152
  > 3 651(79.1) 42(71.2)   
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal delivery 496(60.3) 34(57.6) 0.160 0.689
 Cesarean delivery 327(39.7) 25(42.4)   
Gestational hypertensive disorders
 No 817(99.3) 55(93.2) 12.988 <0.001
 Yes 6(0.7) 4(6.8)   
Gestational diabetes mellitus
 No 786(95.5) 54(91.5) 1.145 0.285
 Yes 37(4.5) 5(8.5)   
Fetus number
 Singleton 807(98.1) 50(84.7) 30.745 <0.001
 Multiple 16(1.9) 9(15.3)   
Premature delivery
 No 791(96.1) 48(81.4) 22.764 <0.001
 Yes 32(3.9) 11(18.6)   
Initiation of breastfeeding
  ≤ 2 h 558(67.8) 26(44.1) 13.861 <0.001
  > 2 h 265(32.2) 33(55.9)   
Passive smoking during pregnancy
 No 744(90.4) 53(89.8) 0.021 0.698
 Yes 79(9.6) 6(10.2)   
Frequent exposure to mobile phone during pregnancy
 No 554(67.3) 26(44.1) 13.213 <0.001
 Yes 269(32.7) 33(55.9)   
History of cesarean section
 No 777(94.4) 58(98.3) 0.973 0.324
 Yes 46(5.6) 1(1.7)   
Parity
 Primiparous 584(71.0) 51(86.4) 6.544 0.011
 Multiparous 239(29.0) 8(13.6)   
Infant gender
 Male 430(52.2) 32(54.2) 0.087 0.768
 Female 393(47.8) 27(45.8)   
Infant weight at 4 weeks
  < -2SD 10(1.2) 14(23.7) 97.085 <0.001
  ≥ -2SD 813(98.8) 45(76.3)   
Mode of feeding
 Exclusive breastfeeding 681(82.7) 36(61.0) 25.598 <0.001
 Mixed feeding 131(15.9) 18(30.5)   
 Formula feeding 11(1.3) 5(8.5)   
Infant illness within 4 weeks after childbirth
 No 767(93.2) 46(78.0) 15.658 <0.001
 Yes 56(6.8) 13(22.0)   
  1. Abbreviation: PPD Postpartum Depression, SD Standard Deviation