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Table 4 Adjusted relative risks of inadequate PCU according to deprivation factors and other maternal characteristics

From: Association between maternal social deprivation and prenatal care utilization: the PreCARE cohort study

Maternal region of birth France North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa
N = 4628 N = 2140 N = 1606
Inadequate PCU % 17.3% 26.9% 34.7%
  aRR 95% CI aRR 95% CI aRR 95% CI
Social isolation 1.0 0.7–1.4 1.0 0.7–1.3 1.0 0.8–1.2
Poor or insecure housing condition 1.3 1.1–1.5 1.0 0.8–1.2 1.2 0.9–1.4
Not work-related household income 1.3 1.1–1.6 1.3 1.1–1.5 1.2 1.0–1.4
No permanent health care insurance 1.4 1.2–1.6 1.3 1.1–1.5 0.9 0.8–1.1
Maternal age <20 1.7 1.2–2.3 0.6 0.2–1.9 1.2 0.8–1.6
20–25 1.4 1.1–1.8 1.2 1.0–1.6 1.3 1.1–1.6
25–30 1.2 1.0–1.4 1.0 0.9–1.2 1.1 0.9–1.3
30–40 1 ref 1 ref 1 ref
≥40 1.0 0.7–1.3 1.0 0.8–1.4 0.8 0.6–1.2
Father’s age <25 1.3 1.0–1.5 1.2 0.7–1.9 1.1 0.8–1.6
25–40 1 ref 1 ref 1 ref
≥40 1.0 0.8–1.3 0.9 0.8–1.1 1.0 0.8–1.1
Schooling level ≤ Primary school 1.5 0.9–2.5 1.5 1.2–2.0 1.1 0.8–1.3
Middle school 1.3 1.1–1.6 1.4 1.1–2.0 1.1 0.9–1.3
High school 1.2 1.0–1.4 1.1 1.0–1.4 1.1 0.9–1.3
University 1 ref 1 ref 1 ref
Number of children ≥ 3 1.2 1.1–1.2 1.1 1.0–1.2 1.1 1.1–1.2
Pregnancy Expected 1 ref 1 ref 1 ref
Unexpected 1.5 1.3–1.8 1.5 1.3–1.7 1.3 1.1–1.5
Unwanted 1.9 1.3–2.7 1.8 1.3–2.7 1.6 1.2–2.0
Spontaneous pregnancy 1 ref 1 ref 1 ref
Ovulation induction 0.5 0.2–1.3 0.8 0.2–2.9 1.5 0.7–3.2
ART 1.0 0.6–1.8 0.7 0.3–1.6 0.9 0.5–1.9
Linguistic barrier 1.2 1.0–1.5 1.1 0.9–1.3
Undocumented migrants 1.1 0.8–1.3 1.2 1.0–1.4
Recent immigration 1.6 1.3–1.9 1.7 1.4–1.9
  1. Multivariate Model B using multiple imputation
  2. Data on birth place were missing for 33 patients and data on PCU were missing for 413 women
  3. PCU prenatal care utilization, aRR adjusted relative risk, CI Confidence interval, ref reference
  4. Deprivation index: Cf. Table 1