Skip to main content

Table 1 Women’s characteristics according to their social deprivation index

From: Association between maternal social deprivation and prenatal care utilization: the PreCARE cohort study

  Deprivation indexa Total
0 1 2 3
N (%) 6351 (65.0) 1773 (18.2) 913 (9.4) 728 (7.5) 9770
Mean maternal age (SD)** 31.6 (5.0) 30.0 (5.8) 29.1 (6.5) 29.3 (6.2) 30.8 (5.5)
Mean father’s age (SD)** 35.5 (6.8) 35.3 (8.0) 34.5 (8.3) 34.0 (8.4) 35.3 (7.3)
BMI >30** 11.3 15.0 14.2 17.5 12.6
Schooling Level** ≤ Primary school 3.2 10.1 13.2 18.8 6.6
Middle school 13.5 25.4 30.9 32.6 18.6
High school 20.8 30.6 31.8 30.6 24.3
University 62.5 33.9 24.1 18.1 50.5
Number of children ≥ 3** 7.5 13.0 12.8 10.7 9.8
Pregnancy** Expected 82.6 71.2 59.6 48.7 75.8
Unexpected 16.8 27.2 37.9 44.9 22.8
Unwanted 0.6 1.6 2.5 6.4 1.4
Mode of conception** Spontaneous 96.1 98.1 98.0 99.5 96.9
Ovulation induction 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.4 1.1
ART 2.7 1.1 1.0 0.1 2.1
High-risk pregnancyb* 13.1 13.6 14.1 17.5 13.6
Tobacco before pregnancy* 18.4 14.8 16.4 15.6 17.3
Tobacco during pregnancy 8.6 9.2 11.2 10.1 9.0
Alcohol before pregnancy** 0.4 0.5 1.3 1.9 0.6
Alcohol during pregnancy** 2.1 1.7 2.0 5.0 2.2
Cannabis during pregnancy 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.4
HIV infection** 0.8 2.0 2.2 3.2 1.3
Maternal birth place** France 55.9 30.2 28.5 16.2 45.7
French overseas 2.0 1.5 2.2 1.0 1.8
Europe (others) 4.7 5.8 4.4 5.9 5.0
North-Africa 20.2 28.0 25.8 18.2 22.0
Sub-Saharan Africa 9.7 20.8 28.4 50.1 16.5
Others 7.5 13.7 10.8 8.6 9.0
Social isolation** 0.0 6.6 8.1 35.6 4.6
Poor or insecure housing condition** 0.0 24.7 54.0 93.1 16.5
Not work-related household income** 0.0 17.2 62.6 96.0 16.2
No permanent health care insurance** 0.0 51.7 75.7 96.8 23.7
Linguistic barrier** 6.6 17.8 16.9 22.4 10.8
Undocumented migrant** 0.7 12.7 18.5 43.6 7.7
Recent immigration** 3.4 9.1 11.6 26.0 6.9
  1. All values are percentage unless specified
  2. SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, DOM-TOM French overseas departments and territories, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, ART assisted reproductive therapy
  3. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.001
  4. aDeprivation index: simple sum of 4 deprivation dimensions: Social isolation, Poor or insecure housing condition, Not work-related household income, and No permanent heath care insurance
  5. bHigh-risk pregnancy is defined by at least one of the following item: diabetes, HIV infection, hypertension, thromboembolic event, heart disease, coagulopathy, brain aneurism, uterine malformation, Graves’ disease, autoimmune disease, alloimmunisation, nephropathy, homozygote sickle cell anemia, respiratory failure and adverse obstetrical history (pre-eclampsia, late miscarriage, cerclage, still birth, neonatal death, birth weight <2500 grams)