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Table 3 Clinical characteristics and basic lipid profiles of the women with gestational diseases in the cross-sectional study group

From: Maternal 27-hydroxycholesterol concentrations during the course of pregnancy and in pregnancy pathologies

  CTRL PE IUGR ICP HELLP P-value
  Mean or % Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI Mean or % Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI Mean or % Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI Mean or % Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI Mean or % Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI Group
Maternal age (y) 30.1 28.2 31.9 31.1 27.9 34.3 30.4 27.1 33.7 31.7 25.8 37.7 37.0 32.4 41.6 0,2272
Maternal BMI (kg/m2) 24.9 22.8 26.9 26.0 23.5 28.6 22.3 19.8 24.8 23.6 19.8 27.3 25.6 17.7 33.6 0,3151
Primiparity (%) 50    57    64    71    57    0,875
Actual smoking status (%) 19    0    21    0    0    0,2501
Gestational age at blood collection (w) 33.5 31.9 35.1 33.7 30.8 36.5 32.2 28.6 35.7 35.1 31.6 38.5 33.5 28.7 38.2 0,9601
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 117.5 113.8 121.3 149.3 144.2 154.4 119.6 107.7 131.5 120.1 109.4 130.9 154.1 133.2 175.1 <0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 67.2 64.4 70.0 93.8 90.4 97.2 68.6 60.7 76.4 71.0 64.1 77.9 91.3 83.7 98.8 <0,0001
WOG at delivery (w) 39.4 39.0 39.7 34.5 31.7 37.2 32.5 29.0 36.1 37.7 36.6 38.8 33.5 28.7 38.2 <0,0001
Mode of delivery (% c-section) 40    86    86    43    100    0,0013
Fetal gender (% female) 57    43    57    100    71    0,2083
Neonatal birth weight (g) 3369 3255 3483 2181 1622 2741 1348 813 1882 3123 2715 3530 1985 1147 2823 <0,0001
Neonatal weight percentile 47.3 39.6 55.0 27.9 16.8 39.1 2.1 1.4 2.9 54.2 28.0 80.4 24.6 5.3 43.9 <0,0001
TC 267.7 252.0 283.4 260.7 224.2 297.2 223.9 202.8 244.9 317.7 241.3 394.1 222.9 189.5 256.2 0,0131
LDL 150.5 137.6 163.4 144.9 117.3 172.5 111.6 94.01 129.3 206.0 141.7 270.3 111.6 84.04 139.1 0,0015
HDL 76.88 70.76 83.00 65.14 51.84 78.44 78.00 66.95 89.05 56.86 52.71 61.01 70.29 43.23 97.34 0.0356
TG 222.2 197.6 246.8 317.1 245.6 388.5 174.2 137.4 211.0 261.9 212.5 311.2 293.3 124.5 462.1 0,0121
  1. Mean maternal age was similar in CTRL, PE, IUGR, and ICP, while mothers with HELLP tended to be older. About 20% of mothers in the IUGR group and in the CTRL group smoked during pregnancy while none of the patients in the other groups smoked. Mothers with pregnancy pathologies gave birth earlier compared to the CTRL group as indicated by the non-overlap of the 95% CIs. In the ICP group mothers were more likely to deliver girls. Mean gestational ages of the study groups at blood sampling were kept similar to the CTRL counterparts. As estimated by non-overlap of 95% CI TC and LDL levels were lower in IUGR by 17% and 25%, respectively, as compared to the CTRL group. A similar trend can be observed in the HELLP syndrome. In ICP HDL levels are 25% lower while LDL tended to be 37% higher as compared to CTRL. We found a tendency of higher TG values (+43%) in the PE group in comparison to CTRL. CTRL: control group. PE: preeclampsia. IUGR: intrauterine growth restriction. ICP: intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy. HELLP: hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome