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Table 5 Comparison of intervention rates, care variables and key outcomes in the study group (all women opting for MLU care), between all spontaneous vaginal births at MLU vs CLU

From: Midwife-led maternity care in Ireland – a retrospective cohort study

  MLU CLU p-value
n = 1,878 n = 900*
Primiparity, % 18.8 25.9 <0.001 a
Maternal age, years 30.6 29.5 <0.001 b
Primiparous women 27.4 26.6  
Multiparous women 31.4 30.6  
1-2 midwives involved, % 90.9 70.0 <0.001 a
Primiparous women 88.4 68.3  
Multiparous women 91.5 70.6  
Maximum 3 vaginal examinations during birth, % 93.6 79.7 <0.001 a
Primiparous women 86.8 69.4  
Multiparous women 95.1 83.2  
Upright position, % 52.0 9.4 <0.001 a
Primiparous women 52.0 6.9  
Multiparous women 52.0 10.3  
Amniotomy, % 5.9 25.9 <0.001 a
Primiparous women 5.5 24.0  
Multiparous women 6,1 26.6  
Episiotomy, % 3.4 9.4 <0.001 a
Primiparous women 7.3 22.7  
Multiparous women 2.4 4.8  
Sphincter tear, % 1.7 2.0 0.539 a
Primiparous women 4.2 3.4  
Multiparous women 1.0 1.5  
Physiological management of 3rd stage, % 50.9 4.7 <0.001 a
Primiparous women 50.8 2.1  
Multiparous women 50.9 5.5  
PPH > 500 mL, % 2.9 7.2 <0.001 a
Primiparous women 5.1 7.7  
Multiparous women 2.4 7.0  
PPH > 1000 mL, % 1.3 2.8 0.008 a
Primiparous women 2.6 3.4  
Multiparous women 1.0 2.6  
Apgar score <7 at 5 min, % 0.1 0.5 0.038 a
Primiparous women 0.0 0.9  
Multiparous women 0.1 0.3  
  1. a Fisher’s Exact Test
  2. b One-way ANOVA
  3. * Including spontaneous vaginal births at theatre and “other” place, n = 32